KimRpaper2 - Robert Kim HED 430.02 Nosocomial...

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Robert Kim HED 430.02 February 24, 2010 Nosocomial Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Elderly Populations Microbial bacterial infections were once thought to be conquered with the advent of antibiotics in the 1930’s. Just three decades later antibiotic resistant microbial infections were discovered. The first symptoms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was documented in 1961 (Davis, Stewart, Crouch et al., 2004). By 1968, the disease had its first documented outbreak. This virulent and potentially more dangerous form of Staphylococcal aureus (S-aureus) infection is a serious concern in public health, and is a condition associated with institutions (Davis et al., 2004; Klevens et al., 2007; Tacconelli, 2009; Skyman, Sjostrom, & Hellstrom, 2010; Wise, 2007; Solberg, 2000; Huang, Cheung, Kaatz, & Ryback, 2010). In the past 40 years MRSA has become a major problem throughout hospitals and health institutions worldwide (Solberg, 2000). MRSA infections now account for 20 to 40% of nosocomial S. aureus infections in endemic hospitals internationally. The quality of care delivered at hospitals is now being associated with the number of MRSA infections developed during hospitalization (Tacconelli, 2010). The pervasive and potentially mortal nature of the spread of MRSA has the medical field up-in-arms to fight the spread of this infection. Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections create additional complications in treating injuries and illnesses. With the increased prevalence of resistant S. aureus, recovering from surgery, treating open wounds, and mitigating the risk of infection is once again a serious challenge in treating patients (Wise, 2007). While Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was once easily treated by taking an oral regimen of amoxicillin, ampicillin or other commonly prescribed antibiotic for infections on the skin, in soft-tissue, or in open wounds, with the occasional use of intravenous delivery of an antibiotic for internal organs or advanced infections.
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Multi-drug resistant S. aureus requires the use of more aggressive and less commonly used anti- infection agents; and, it is no longer primarily an infection on exposed wounds, significantly more cases of MRSA infections occur in internal organs, which was once a rare occurrence (Wise, 2007; & Abdel-Haq et al, 2009). Those that contract MRSA are at much greater risk of experiencing seriously debilitating conditions and death. As resistant forms of S. aureus continues to mutate resistance to treatments, the onset of the disease will likely become more prevalent and harder to treat. Treating hyper-aggressive MRSA infections often require invasive surgeries coupled with aggressive treatment with a non-traditional antibiotic, dalbavancin, vancomycin, minocycline, teicoplanin, and tigecycline are among the most commonly used antimicrobials used to treat MRSA (Huang et al, 2010). One of the most troubling aspects of the spread of MRSA is that a large number of
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2010 for the course H ED 430 taught by Professor Vanolphen during the Spring '10 term at San Francisco School of Digital Filmmaking.

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KimRpaper2 - Robert Kim HED 430.02 Nosocomial...

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