February 24, 2010
Nosocomial Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Microbial bacterial infections were once thought to be conquered with the advent of
antibiotics in the 1930’s.
Just three decades later antibiotic resistant microbial infections were
The first symptoms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was
documented in 1961 (Davis, Stewart, Crouch et al., 2004).
By 1968, the disease had its first
This virulent and potentially more dangerous form of Staphylococcal
aureus (S-aureus) infection is a serious concern in public health, and is a condition associated
with institutions (Davis et al., 2004; Klevens et al., 2007; Tacconelli, 2009; Skyman, Sjostrom,
& Hellstrom, 2010; Wise, 2007; Solberg, 2000; Huang, Cheung, Kaatz, & Ryback, 2010).
past 40 years MRSA has become a major problem throughout hospitals and health institutions
worldwide (Solberg, 2000).
MRSA infections now account for 20 to 40% of nosocomial S.
aureus infections in endemic hospitals internationally.
The quality of care delivered at hospitals
is now being associated with the number of MRSA infections developed during hospitalization
The pervasive and potentially mortal nature of the spread of MRSA has the
medical field up-in-arms to fight the spread of this infection.
Spread of Hospital Associated MRSA
The spread of MRSA occurs primarily from septic lesions and carriage sites of patients
The principal carriage site in humans is the perineum and the anterior nares.
Other sites such as the throat and axillae are far less susceptible to carrying the bacteria.
Research suggests that approximately 80% of those tested from the anterior nares carry S.
Nearly 20% are constant carriers of at least 1 strain, 60% are recurrent carriers, and the
remaining 20% may never carry the bacteria, but is still susceptible, nevertheless.