10 - Middle_and_South_America_February_12_10

10 - Middle_and_South_America_February_12_10 - Middle and...

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Middle and South America Middle and South America Social, Economic and  Environmental Issues
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Migration and Urbanization Migration and Urbanization The Region leads in rural-urban  migration - 75% of the pop now live in towns with at  least 2000 people A lot of primate cities: - Mexico City: about 20% of Mexico’s pop. - Lima, Peru: about 30% of Peru’s pop. - Santiago, Chile: abt 34% of Chile’s pop.
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Migration and Urbanization Migration and Urbanization Effects of Primate Cities: - Uneven spatial development and urban bias  policies - Concentration of wealth and power in one  place - Rural areas can’t compete for talents,  investment fund, and industries - Infrastructure development can’t keep pace  with migration inflows
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Migration and Urbanization Migration and Urbanization Effects of Primate Cities: - Squatter settlements: unconventional  materials, uncontrolled and chaotic, but with  enterprising people: e.g. Port of Spain and  steel bands - Rural development projects encourage  female migration due to mechanization –  farm equipments.
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Economic Issues: Economic Issues: Globalization and Income Disparity: Phases of Economic Development i. The Early Extractive Phase ii. The Import Substitution  Industrialization Phase iii. Structural Adjustment Policy Phase 
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The Early Extractive Phase The Early Extractive Phase Mercantilist phase: lop sided trade – huge  outflow of resource to Europe and small inflow  of foreign investment in manufacturing Repatriation of profits by colonizers as  opposed to reinvestment in the economy as  was the case in North America’s development Plantation – (large factory farms producing  single crops like sugar, cotton): dependence on  slave instead of local labor; payment of low  wages
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The Import Substitution 
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