Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large...

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Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers. Polymers are long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. Monomer is a subunit of a polymer, aka building blocks of polymers The reaction that forms a polymer from monomers is a polymerization reaction Most biological polymerization reactions are condensation reactions also called dehydration synthesis reactions (fig. 5.2a) Condensation reactions are polymerization reactions in which the covalent linkage of the monomer is accompanied by the “removal” of a water molecule. Hydrolysis is the breaking of covalent bond between two monomers by the addition of water. (fig 5.2b) Biological Macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Nucleic Acid 4. Proteins Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates are organic molecules made of sugars and their polymers. Monosaccharides Monomers of simple sugars Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen combined in a 1:2:1 ratio. Ex. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Simplest forms of carbohydrates Each carbon has a hydroxyl group (-OH) and at least one hydrogen (-H) attached to it except for one carbon, which has a carbonyl group instead of the hydroxyl. (slide on Moodle) Memorize fig 5.3 Monosaccharide Ring Formation (fig. 5.4a) Chemical equilibrium favors the ring structure. Carbon 1 binds to the oxygen attached to carbon 5. Disaccharides Consists of 2 monosaccharides joined covalently during a dehydration reaction. Ex. Maltose, an ingredient used to produce beer. Also, sucrose, or table sugar, and lactose, a sugar found in milk. Disaccharide Formation (slide on Moodle) Polysaccharides Enormous molecules consisting of a hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides held together by a glycosidic linkage Can be used for storage, or as a building material for structures that protect cells Storage Polysaccharides:
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Used by plants and animals. Plants use starch, a polymer of glucose monomers. o Glucose is a major cellular energy source, so plants form starch as a source of cellular glucose. o
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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large...

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