Final Exam

Final Exam - Final Exam Chapter 1 1. Hierarchy of...

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Final Exam Chapter 1 1. Hierarchy of Biological Organizations 1. Biosphere : All of the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life 2. Ecosystems : All living things in a particular area, along with non-living environmental components with which life interacts (soil, water, air components, light) 3. Community : the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem 4. Population : individuals of a species living within the bounds of a particular area 5. Organism : individual living things 6. Organ and Organ System : Body part consisting of 2 or more tissues 7. Tissue : Group of cells from similar embryonic origins that combine to form organs 8. Cell : the fundamental unit of structure and function in life, (Neuron, hepatocyte) 9. Organelle : Various functional components that make up cells (chloroplast, mitochondria) 10. Molecule : chemical structure consisting of 2 or more atoms 11. Atom : basic unit of matter (Hydrogen) 12. Subatomic particle : all units if matter smaller than the atom (protons, neutrons, electrons) 2. Main taxonomic ranks : Domain Kingdom Phylum 1 Division 2 Class Order Family Genus Species Chapter 2 1. >>The greater the electronegativity difference, the more ionic the bond is. Bonds that are partly ionic are called polar covalent bonds. >>Non-polar covalent bonds, with equal sharing of the bond electrons, arise when the electronegativites of the two atoms are equal. Non-polar Covalent Bond A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have similar or identical electronegativity and therefore have equal sharing of the bonding electron pair Examples: C-C, C-H, H-H, O=O Non-polar covalent bonds are hydrophobic. Polar Covalent Bond A bond between 2 nonmetal atoms that have significantly different electronegativites and therefore have unequal sharing of the bonding electron pair Example: H-O-H Polar Covalent bonds are generally hydrophilic 2. H = 2.2, C = 2.6, N = 3.1, O = 3.5 Chapter 3
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1. Hydrophobic Interactions : A real Important Concept Deals with the energy required for inserting a non-polar molecule into water. A non-polar molecule or functional group (-CH3) cannot Hydrogen-bond with water- C is not as electronegative as O and N So the molecule distorts the normal random structure of water. This is: The surrounding water is forced to assume a rigid matrix of hydrogen-bonds around the non-polar –CH3 group. Another way of saying it: Increasing the structural organization of water is energetically unfavorable Thus, hydrophobic molecules or groups are not soluble in water. Instead, they aggregate together by van der Waals force. 2. pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the cologarithm of the activity of dissolved hydrogen ions (H + ). ^OH- the more basic (8-14)
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Summer '07 term at LSU.

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Final Exam - Final Exam Chapter 1 1. Hierarchy of...

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