Final_Exam_study_guide - amino acids (polar, nonpolar,...

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Final Exam-Cumulative Portion Study Guide Summer 2009 **The cumulative portion of the final exam will account for 1/3 of the total points on the exam, and will be approximately 17 questions. We’ve covered 9 chapters to this point, so expect about 2 questions per chapter, based on the topics listed below: Chapter 1: Hierarchy of biological organization: biosphere, ecosystem, community etc. . The division of living organisms into groups: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order etc. . Chapter 2: Polar vs. Non-polar covalent bonds Electronegativity of atoms in living systems (C, N, O, and H), and how this contributes to the polarity of a molecule Chapter 3: Hydrophobic interactions Acids, Bases, and the pH scale Chapter 4: Isomers (structural, geometric, and enantiomers) Know the different functional groups (amino, methyl, carbonyl etc.) and be able to identify them Chapter 5: Be able to categorize
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Unformatted text preview: amino acids (polar, nonpolar, charged) Levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary) Chapter 6: Smooth vs. Rough E.R. structure and function Golgi Apparatus structure and function Chapter 7: Factors that contribute to membrane fluidity Osmosis, what to expect when cells are placed in hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic solutions Chapter 8: Free energy- understand the equation, how to calculate free energy, and what it means in terms of a reaction being spontaneous / exergonic or non-spontaneous / endergonic. . ATP-structure, function, and how ATP hydrolysis reactions couple to endergonic reactions Chapter 9: Redox reactions-understand oxidation, reduction, and how this provides energy Understand the bridge reaction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycleknow the inputs, the outputs, and what happens in between...
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Summer '07 term at LSU.

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Final_Exam_study_guide - amino acids (polar, nonpolar,...

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