Chemistry Notes- Chapter 6.docx - Chemistry Notes: Chapter...

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Chemistry Notes: Chapter 66.1 Electromagnetic Energy-James Clerk MaxwelloTheory of electromagnetic radiation: showed that light was the visible park of avast spectrum of electromagnetic waves, discredited the particle view of light-WavesoWave: an oscillation or periodic movement that can transport energy from onepoint in space to anotheroWaves need not be restricted to travel through matteroAll waves are characterized by wavelength, frequency, and an amplitudeWavelength: the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in awaveFrequency: the number of wave cycles that pass a specified point in spacein a specified amount of timeA cycle corresponds to one complete wavelengthAmplitude: corresponds to the magnitude of the wave’s displacementand this corresponds to one-half the height between the peaks andtroughsRelated to the intensity of the wave: for light is brightness and forsound is loudnessoWavelength and frequency are inversely proportionaloThe electromagnetic spectrum: range of all types of electromagnetic radiationoEach of the various colors of visible light has specific frequencies andwavelengths associated with themoInterference Patterns: shows the result of two or more waves coming in contactoStanding waves (stationary waves) remain constrained within some region ofspaceoOnly those waves having an integer number, n, of half-wavelengths between theend points can formoQuantization: only discrete values from a more general set of continuous valuesof some property are observedoNodes: points between the two end points that are not in motionoEnergies of the standing waves with a given amplitude in a vibrating stringincrease with the number of half-wavelengths n-Black Body Radiation and the Ultra Violet CatastropheoContinuous Spectrum: shows the wavelength distribution for sunlightoBlackbody: a convenient, ideal emitter that approximates the behavior of manymaterials when heatedoUltraviolet Catastrophe: the theoretical curve did not show a peak, they showedthe intensity becoming infinitely large as the wavelength became smaller, which
would imply that everyday objects at room temperature should be emitting largeamount of UV lightoPlanck’s constant (h)-The Photoelectric EffectoObserved that electrons could be ejected from the clean surface of a metal whenlight having frequency greater than some threshold frequency was shone on itoEinstein argued that the quantized energies that Planck had postulated in histreatment of blackbody radiation could be applied to the light in thephotoelectric effect so that the light striking the metal surface should not beviewed as a wave, but instead as a stream of particles (later called photons)whose energy depended on their frequencyoWave-particle duality: light is both wavelike and particle like-Line SpectraoDefinition: having very narrow line widths interspersed throughout the spectralregionso

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Term
Fall
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Atom, Atomic orbital

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