{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Aggression - Aggression What is Aggression The simplest...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Aggression What is Aggression? The simplest definition of aggression is that it is any behavior that hurts others. But this definition ignores the intention of the person who does the act, and this factor is critical. So aggression is defined as behavior directed toward the goal of harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment. A second major distinction needs to be drawn between antisocial aggression and prosocial aggression . Many aggressive acts are actually dictated by social norms and are therefore described as prosocial. Unprovoked criminal acts that hurt others violate social norms and are thus antisocial acts. Some aggressive acts that fall somewhere between prosocial and antisocial might be labeled sanctioned aggression . Prosocial - dictated by social norm (punishing a child) Antisocial - unprovoked criminal acts Sanctioned aggression - not required by social norms but within their bounds (woman fighting back against an attacker) Another useful distinction is between aggressive behaviors and aggressive feelings such as anger. Finally, we need to distinguish between hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. In hostile aggression – the act of aggression stems from feelings of anger and is aimed at inflicting pain. In instrumental aggression – aggression is a means to some goal other than causing pain. Theoretical Perspectives on Aggression A. The Role of Biological Factors 1. Instinctual Theory Freud assumed that we have an instinct to be aggressive. 2 main forces: Freud theorized that human beings are born with an instinct toward life, which he called eros , and an equally powerful instinct toward death, which he called thanatos . Aggression can never be eliminated. Eros - instinct towards life Thanatos - instinct towards death Freud also felt the expression of aggression is cathartic (blow off steam). Catharsis may relax inhibitions and make you more aggressive short term. 1
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Konrad Lorenz – Also suggested that humans have an inborn tendency towards aggression, which he called the fighting instinct Particularly important for males 2. Evolutionary psychology- inherited tendencies, not specific behaviors Help males get mates; help females protect young Problem: human aggression is more complex than most animal aggression. Although most scientists no longer accept the idea that aggression derives from a death instinct, most concur that aggression springs from inherited tendencies that human being share with many other species. There is evidence that aggression runs in families, both in the animal and the human world. Damage to the limbic system can increase defensive aggression – heightened aggressiveness to stimuli that are not usually threatening or a decrease in the responses that normally inhibit aggression.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern