Chapter 8 social psyc

Chapter 8 social psyc - Chapter 8 Close Relationships:...

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Chapter 8 – Close Relationships: Family, Friends, Lovers, and Spouses Interdependent Relationships with Family and Friends versus Loneliness Interdependence –refers to an interpersonal association in which two people influence each others’ lives. A. Family: Where Relationships and Attachment Styles Begin Attachment was defined by Ainsworth as “an enduring affectional tie that unites one person to another, over time and across space.” Attachment style – degree of security experienced in interpersonal relationships. Initially develop in the interactions between infant and caregiver when the infant acquires basic attitudes about self-worth and interpersonal trust. Self-esteem – interactions make the baby feel valued or worthless Interpersonal trust – belief in reliability of others Theoretical roots of attachment Evolutionary psychology - Bowlby - Infants are motivated to seek out the attention and proximity of adults for their survival , especially when hurt, scared, etc. adult turned to most often comes to represent security and protection Corresponding motivation in adults Neotenous Features – characteristics that the young of a species have that adults of the species don’t have Psychoanalytic - Early experiences with caregivers lead to the formation of “working models” of the self and of the attachment figure. The caregiver’s accessibility and level of care, and one’s feelings about one’s deservedness of that care, will have implications for future judgements of the self and relationships with others. . Significant risk of psychopathology if attachment was inconsistent or unsatisfactory Behaviorist theories - Behaviorists had given feeding a central role in the development of attachment. According to Hull's drive reduction model, the baby's hunger, the primary drive, is satisfied repeatedly by the mother. She becomes a learned drive (repeated pairing with saitiation) Feeding is the basis of attachment So is feeding the basis of attachment? Harlow’s rhesus monkey studies – 2 “mothers” – 1 covered with wire , 1 covered with terry cloth – both could feed infant monkey
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results – even when only fed by wire mother, monkeys preferred cloth mother Contact and comfort seemed more important than feeding as adults, the monkeys showed social deficits , when met with other adult monkeys, they had extreme terror or violence toward other monkeys male monkeys raped others women monkeys abandoned and beat their kids What about humans? can’t perform study – unethical Naturalistic observation – babies become attached to people who rarely if ever feed them Toddlers separated from attachment figures tend to form attachment to something soft and cuddly – blanket , teddy bear, etc Ainsworth’s Strange Situation - eight stages designed to measure the level of attachment between infant and caregiver. The major attachment types
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2010 for the course PSYC 2040 taught by Professor Adair during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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Chapter 8 social psyc - Chapter 8 Close Relationships:...

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