Chapter 10 social psyc

Chapter 10 social psyc - Chapter 10 Prosocial Behavior...

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Chapter 10 – Prosocial Behavior: Helping Others Prosocial behavior – a helpful action that benefits other people without necessarily providing any direct benefits to the person performing the act, and may even involve a risk for the person who helps Altruism – behavior that reflects an unselfish concern for the welfare of others. The murder of Kitty Genovese 45 minute struggle 38 witnesses people called police 20 minutes after death, police arrived 2 minutes after Why didn’t anyone help Kitty Genovese? Situational Features that Influence Altruism 1. The Presence of Others Bystander Effect –likelihood of a prosocial response to an emergency is affected by the number of bystanders who are present. As the number of bystanders increases, the probability that any one bystander will help decreases and the amount of time that passes before help occurs increases. Latane and Darley’s experiments. P’s were alone in a room, talking with other p’s through an intercom One of them suddenly pretends he is having a seizure Took longer to respond when real p’s thought there were other people present Why does the presence of others inhibit helpfulness? a. D iffusion of responsibility – amount of responsibility assumed by bystanders is shared May assume others have already reacted Group leaders not as affected
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b. A mbiguity in the interpretation of the situation. If no one reacts, we may think it is not an emergency Where There's Smoke, There's (Sometimes) Fire Latane and Darley – Smoke Study P’s filling out a questionnaire Conditions 1) P alone 2) 3 p’s Results if they were alone they reported it if they were with another participant 38% reported if they were with 2 other people only 10% got up and said something thought smoke was not dangerous or was part of experiment Togetherness reduces fear even when danger is not reduced c. E valuation apprehension – if we know that other people are watching our behavior, we may get “stage fright” Smoke study – may have been afraid of looking like a coward Can make us more likely to help however 2. Environmental Conditions The effects of weather were investigated in 2 field studies by Cunningham. 1) Cunningham – questionnaire study - Restaurant study Research finds that when it comes to helping strangers in distress, city size is important . - Size of hometown irrelevant Amato investigated helping in 55 Australian communities, ranging from small villages to major cities. To ensure a diverse sample of prosocial behaviors, five different types of helping were studied: o A student asking pedestrians to write down their favorite color as part of a school project. o A pedestrian inadvertently dropping an envelope on the sidewalk o A request to donate money to the Multiple Sclerosis Society o A salesclerk giving obviously wrong directions to someone o A man with a bandaged leg falling to the ground and crying out in pain.
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This effect was even stronger when population density was considered. Population
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Chapter 10 social psyc - Chapter 10 Prosocial Behavior...

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