Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioral...

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Chapter 11 Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioral Approaches to Psychotherapy Main tenets of this approach: - person’s actions determined by perceptions of situation (i.e., How your perceive the situation influences how you act/behave) - interpretations & cognitions influ how person feels about a situation - says that cognitions cause both psychopathological cognition includes: - our perceptions/interpretations of situations - our perceptions of ourselves & our competencies thus, psychotherapy is the attempt 2 modify cognitions Cog/Cog-behav therapies becoming most influential approaches @ present time cog-behav th developed out of behav therapy What is diff b/t cog & cog-behav therapies?
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matter of emphasis cog therapies USE behav techs, but EMPHASIZE cognitive theory cog-behav therapies USE cog techs, but EMPHASIZE behaviorism/learning principles Both therapies oft referred 2 as cog-behavioral therapies Cog-behav therapies have become influential b/ - R brief & efficient - R highly structured & systematic (not really exploratory) - cog-behav therapists spend lots of effort on empirical purposes i.e., research their approaches 2 demonstrate they work Transition from Behav Therapy to Cog-Behav Therapy - today, virtually every subarea of psych ( from experimental 2 develop, pers 2 soc psyc) place study of cog processes @ center stage - shift from behav 2 cog-behav began in ‘ 70s - major contributors 2 shift was work of Bandura Albert Bandura 2
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- He was codeveloper of social learning theory aka “soc-cog theory” - Trad behaviorism sd learning is automatic assoc of S-R thus, says learning essentially trial-&-error process WHEREBY organism emits variety of behavs until 1 is reinforced - Bandura asserted that learning is cog mediated - Sd stimulus comes 2 B assoc w/response b/c it comes 2 have predictive value if shock repeatedly paired w/light, then person avoids light NOT b/c light has become aversive BUT b/c it has become predictive of shock/pain i.e., person thinks light means pain is coming so I better stay away Thus, people learn Expectancies - He (Bandura ) sd most impt human learning Vicarious Learning we don’t learn most impt skills N life by performing trial-&-error responses until 1 is reinforced 3
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(imagine if surgeons learned by trial-and-error) Instead, most learning takes place thru observation & instruction Situational Specificity of Behavior - key concept of soc leaning theorists – situational specificity of behav - Bandura believes that behav is situation-spec i.e., behav guided by expectancies N spec situations EX - if person acts assertively N some situations is b/c learned assertiveness is effective N that situation person EXPECTS that assertiveness is what is needed N mtg challenge ahead Thus, b/c behav guided by what u learn 2 expect N diff situations, u might act quite differently N diff situations Idea of situational specificity can explain why psychos/other mental hlth profess 4
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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioral...

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