Chapter 12 – Groups and Individuals:
The Consequences of Belonging
a collection of people who are perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit
to some degree.
Face to face contact
– the extent to which a group is perceived as being a coherent entity.
Low entiativity – college students in the US
High – romantic couples and families
People Change in Groups
Merei’s 1949 child study – brought children together, by 3
time, they made rules, who
got to sit where, etc.
Social Structure elements
When people are together in a group, they do not remain the same as they are outside of
They develop patterns of behavior, divide tasks, and adopt different roles.
These patterns are referred to as the
of the group.
We’re going to look
at several important elements of social structure.
– behaviors individuals occupying specific positions within a group are
expected to perform , roles help divide division of labor
roles may be explicit or implicit,
Example - Researchers, led by Philip Zimbardo, created a mock prison in 1973 in
a laboratory basement.
Within a brief time, the "guards" and "prisoners" became
totally absorbed in their respective roles. As the guards grew more aggressive, the
prisoners became passive and apathetic. Finally, after only 6 days, the experiment
had to be halted.
Used 21 male undergraduates, paid 15$ a day for 2 weeks
9 randomly picked as prisoners, guards worked 8 hour shifts
Guards became aggressive, prisoners became depressed
Guards would wake prisoners up, force them to do pushups until they
collapsed, when prisoners complained, they put them in solitary confinement,
Halted after 6 days because of breakdowns among prisoners,
position or rank within a group