- Chapter 3 Social Perception:...

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Chapter 3 – Social Perception: Understanding Others Nonverbal Communication We all know that how we behave is influenced by the mood of the moment. Because we know that behavior is affected by mood, we often try to figure out what mood another person is in. One of the ways in which we do this is to observe another person’s nonverbal communication - Nonverbal cues are irrepressible Albert Mehrabian found in his research that only about 7 percent of the emotional meaning of a message is communicated through explicit verbal channels. About 38 percent is communicated by paralanguage Argyle (1969) has estimated that when two people meet and chat, only 30% of the communication process occurs through what we say, the other 70% is a result of indirect or nonverbal communication. Problems of studying nonverbal communication i. Nonverbal cues can be ambiguous 2. Nonverbal cues are continuous iii. Nonverbal cues are multichannel iv. Nonverbal cues are culture-bound
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Nonverbal Communication: The Basic Channels 1. Facial Expressions - The act of communicating a mood, attitude, opinion, feeling, or other message by contracting the muscles of the face. It seems that there are six basic emotions that are represented very clearly by the human face – anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and disgust – though some researchers suggest that contempt is also a very basic facial expression. Different parts of the face are active in order to show different emotions: A. Nose : nostril flare (arousal). B . Lips : grin (happiness, affiliation, contentment); grimace (fear); lip-compression (anger, emotion, frustration); canine snarl (disgust); lip-pout (sadness, submission, uncertainty); lip-purse (disagree); sneer (contempt; see below, Sneer ). C. Brows : frown (anger, sadness, concentration); brow-raise (intensity). D. Tongue : tongue-show (dislike, disagree). E. Eyelids : flashbulb eyes (surprise); widened (excitement, surprise); narrowed (threat, disagreement); fast-blink (arousal); normal-blink (relaxed). F. Eyes : big pupils (arousal, fight-or-flight); small pupils (rest-and-digest); direct-gaze (affiliate, threaten); gaze cut-off (dislike, disagree); gaze-down (submission, deception); CLEMS conjugate lateral eye movement (thought processing). Blank Face - 2. Gazes and Stares Eye contact or lack of it is a very important part of communication. If we notice someone making eye contact with us frequently, we usually interpret that as a sign that they like us. Conversely, if someone doesn’t make eye contact or appears to avoid
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making eye contact, we assume that they don’t like us. An exception to the “more eye contact = liking” rule is staring When two people are talking they will typically spend 61% of the time gazing into the others eyes and each gaze lasts about three seconds. Mutual gaze - "Look me in the eye when you say that" is a phrase commonly used when we want to know if someone is telling the truth. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2010 for the course PSYC 2040 taught by Professor Adair during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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