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psych 2040 chapter 3

psych 2040 chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Social Perception...

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Chapter 3 – Social Perception: Understanding Others Nonverbal Communication We all know that how we behave is influenced by the mood of the moment. Because we know that behavior is affected by mood , we often try to figure out what mood another person is in. One of the ways in which we do this is to observe another person’s nonverbal communication - facial expression, body posture, eye gaze Nonverbal cues are irrepressible – difficult to control o Albert Mehrabian found in his research that only about 7 percent of the emotional meaning of a message is communicated through explicit verbal channels. About 38 percent is communicated by paralanguage – use of voice. 55 percent of communication is expressed through non verbal communication o Argyle (1969) has estimated that when two people meet and chat, only 30% of the communication process occurs through what we say, the other 70% is a result of indirect or nonverbal communication. Problems of studying nonverbal communication 1. Nonverbal cues can be ambiguous a. Culture, context, degree of intention, not appropriate 2. Nonverbal cues are continuous a. Hard to tell when they stop; it is difficult to analyze b. There is no grammar or syntax i. Nonverbal cues are multichannel ii. Many different parts of the body so it is easy to miss something iii. Subconscious interpretation: right v. left side of the brain iv. Nonverbal cues are culture-bound v. Gestures that are positive in one culture may be negative on nonsensical in another Nonverbal Communication: The Basic Channels Facial Expressions - The act of communicating a mood, attitude, opinion, feeling, or other message by contracting the muscles of the face. o Facial expressions evolved from the Jurassic Period o It seems that there are six basic emotions that are represented very clearly by the human face – anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, and disgust – though some researchers suggest that contempt is also a very basic facial expression. These basic emotions are recognized across most cultures Different parts of the face are active in order to show different emotions: o Nose : nostril flare (arousal). o Lips : grin (happiness, affiliation, contentment); grimace (fear); lip- compression (anger, emotion, frustration); canine snarl (disgust); lip-pout (sadness, submission, uncertainty); lip-purse (disagree); sneer (contempt; see below, Sneer ). o Brows : frown (anger, sadness, concentration); brow-raise (intensity).
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o Tongue : tongue-show (dislike, disagree). o Eyelids : flashbulb eyes (surprise); widened (excitement, surprise); narrowed (threat, disagreement); fast-blink (arousal); normal-blink (relaxed). o Eyes : big pupils (arousal, fight-or-flight); small pupils (rest-and-digest); direct-gaze (affiliate, threaten); gaze cut-off (dislike, disagree); gaze-down (submission, deception); CLEMS conjugate lateral eye movement (thought processing). Blank Face –
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psych 2040 chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Social Perception...

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