test 2 notes - 4 approaches Psychoanalysis...

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4 approaches: Psychoanalysis Humanistic (client and person-centered therapy) Cognitive and cognitive approaches Cognitive- Behavioral Chapter 6: Sigmund Freud - psychoanalysis is one of the most influential approaches to psychotherapy -also referred to psychodynamic view -1 st to systematically develop a theory about personality -deals with hidden meanings -abreaction: mentally reliving the past=Freud’s ultimate goal -therapy must include re-experiencing feelings/affects that accompany meanings Conversion disorder : when you have physical symptoms but not physical illness -Freud used hypnosis to treat it Freud said memories are sometimes forgotten because it’s too painful to remember and are blocked out of consciousness -came to this conclusion because some clients refused to remember feelings caused by painful events that they had forgotten -this led to concept of repression -> emotional conflictual material excluded from consciousness b/c of its painful nature -in order to cure repression you have to make emotions available to conscious awareness. This will allow a person to express and discharge them, which is called emotional catharsis Metapsychology: -energy system that is fueled by sex and aggressive energy -Freud thought sexuality lay at the core of psychopathology Sublimination- the way most socially adapt to way of handling repressed wishes/conflicts -when we can’t use sublimination, we use defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, projection, displacement and reaction formation -neurotic symptoms appear when defenses fail Psychopathology and anxiety: Freud said anxiety appears when defenses begin to break down -when neurotic symptoms don’t work as defenses, failure in keeping material from conscious occurs Developmental stages and id, ego and superego: Structural theory: mind consists of 3 separate structures-> id, ego and superego Id : what we have at birth
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