ch.3 partial

ch.3 partial - What!are!the!Goals(Chapter!3...

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9/14/2009 1 What are the Goals (Chapter 3)? Recognize and understand chemical equations. Learn to balance chemical equations. Recognize some basic reaction types combination Recognize some basic reaction types: combination, decomposition, combustion. Understand formula weights and molecular weights. Understand Avogadro’s number and the mole. Understand how empirical formulas can be determined by experiments. Stoichiometry – quantitative information from balanced reactions. Understand limiting reactants. Chemical processes convert: Elements into compounds Compound into element Chemical Basics Compounds into elements Compounds into compounds
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9/14/2009 2 Chemical Composition of the World: Atoms 200 Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical to one another in mass and other properties, but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of other elements. The atoms of one element cannot be changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions; atoms are neither John Dalton (1766 " 1844) created or destroyed in chemical reactions. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms. Chemical Equations Chemical Reaction Involves a rearrangement of atoms , one or more substance is transformed (reactant) and one or more substance is created (product). Conservation of Mass Atoms are neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. Balanced Chemical Equation Tells us which substances are the products and which substances are the reactants, and the relative amounts of each.
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9/14/2009 3 Chemical Equations These show the chemical change taking place in a reaction. Sr ( s ) + Cl 2( g ) SrCl 2( s ) Physical state Reactants Product Chemical Equations As matter cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction, the total number of atoms on one side must be equal to the total number of atoms on the other.
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9/14/2009 4 Chemical Reactions • Combination and Decomposition • Combustion in Air (including combustion analysis) Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity Combination: A + B ! C2 S(s) + 3 O 2 (g) ! 2 SO 3 (g) Decomposition: C ! A + B CaCO 3 (s) ! CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) Combustion in air (a.k.a. burning, oxidation) C 3 H 8 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) ! 4 H 2 O(g) + 3 CO 2 (g)
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9/14/2009 5 Combustion Reactions Rapid reactions that produce a flame Reaction of a substance with O 2 Combustion of hydrocarbons forms CO 2 and H 2 O. Example 1 - Combustion of Methane Let’s try to write a balanced equation for this reaction C H 4 + O 2 ! CO 2 + H 2 O 2 (Balance H first) Now we can look to balance the numbers of oxygen atoms . CH 4 + 2 O 2 ! CO 2 + 2H 2 O Chemical Reactions (Combustion) • Attempt to show on paper what is happening at the laboratory and molecular levels.
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9/14/2009 6 The Chemistry behind the Airbag The main chemical component in the airbag is sodium azide (NaN 3 ) together with KNO 3 and SiO 2 .
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ch.3 partial - What!are!the!Goals(Chapter!3...

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