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ch.10 - Properties!of!Chemicals Matter...

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11/22/2009 1 Properties of Chemicals " Matter Don’t forget about atoms, electrons, orbitals, bonds and structures – Future Courses Final bonds and structures Future Courses, Final Exams……the chemical and physical properties of matter are related to chemical structure! Basic classes of matter include Gases, Solids, Liquids, Mixtures and Solutions. Chemical Reactivity is greatly affected by the chemical and physical properties of Reactants, Products, and Solvents ! What are the Goals (Chapter 10)? Learn more about what a gas is – what are the basic characteristics of a gas. Learn about Pressure a more technical definition – a more technical definition. Learn the Gas Laws: Boyle’s, Pressure " Volume Charles’, Temperature " Volume Avogadoro’s, Quantity " Volume Learn to Use and Understand the Ideal " Gas Equation (Law) Learn about Mixtures of Gases and Partial Pressures Learn about Kinetic " Molecular Theory Learn about Molecular Diffusion (for gases)
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11/22/2009 2 What is a gas? A gas is composed of particles (atoms particles (atoms or molecules) in constant and random motion. Some Compounds that are gases at RT
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11/22/2009 3 Gases occupy the full volume of their containers (fluid - liquids take on the shape of the container b t d ’t d t fill th f ll l ) Characteristics of Gases but don’t expand to fill the full volume). When a gas is subjected to pressure, its volume decreases ( compressible – do liquids do this? ). Gases always form homogeneous mixtures with other gases other gases. Gases only occupy about 0.1 % of the volume of their containers ( liquids are condensed, more dense, 70% of the volume occupied ). The Ideal Gas " Equation (Law)! (feared by chemistry students everywhere!) P×V = n×R×T PV = nRT P is pressure V is volume n is number of atoms/molecules (mol) R is a constant, the “gas constant” T is Temperature
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11/22/2009 4 Volume A solid has its own shape and volume. A liquid occupies a portion of a container (open or closed). A gas occupies the entire volume of a closed container. V gas = the volume of the closed container Pressure ! Force Force = mass " acceleration ( F = ma ) acceleration = change in velocity F m( kg ) " a( m/s 2 ) = F( kg•m/s 2 = Newton )
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11/22/2009 5 Pressure of a gas Pressure = Force/Area P F # A P # Newtons m 2 P # Pascals 1 atm = 1.0135 x 10 5 Pa = 101.325 kPa Atmospheric Pressure The unit "mm Hg" is called the " torr " after Torricelli, the inventor of the barometer The standard atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg of the barometer. The pressure of the atmosphere is equal to the pressure of the supported column of mercury (Torricelli Barometer). 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 760 torr
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11/22/2009 6 Units of Pressure Meteorologists use a metric unit for pressure called a millibar and the average pressure at sea level is 1013.25 millibars.
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