ch.13 - 12/2/2009 What!are!the!Goals!(Chapter!13)?

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12/2/2009 1 What are the Goals (Chapter 13)? Learn about intermolecular forces involved in solutions and the energy changes with solution formation. Define saturated solutions and solubility Define saturated solutions and solubility. Learn about other factors and how they impact solubility Learn new units of concentration (in addition to molarity = M = mol/L) Learn how solutes alter the freezing points melting Learn how solutes alter the freezing points, melting points and vapor pressures of solutions – Colligative Properties Solvation Dissolving = solvating and separating solute particles Solvent molecules "bonded" to solute particles by intermolecular "bonds" As solvent-solute bond-strength increases solubility increases increases, solubility increases
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12/2/2009 2 Solubility Weak solute–solute interactions favor solubility Weak solvent–solvent interactions favor solubility Strong solvent–solute attractions favor solubility The number of OH groups within a molecule increases solubility in water The number of -OH groups within a molecule increases solubility in water. glucose sucralose (Splenda) sucrose dissolution process occurs where the solute-solute interactions are overcome by the solute- solvent interactions. In other words, if the solute-solvent interactions are stronger than the solute-solute interactions, the solute will be soluble in that solvent. Manufactured by the selective chlorination of sucrose (table sugar), in which three of the OH groups are replaced with chlorine atoms to produce sucralose Solids in Liquids Dissolution is a competition between: 1 Solute solute attractions 1. Solute -solute attractions crystal lattice energy for ionic solids 2. Solvent-solvent attractions H-bonding for water 3. Solute-solvent attractions S l ti h d ti Solvation or hydration energy
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12/2/2009 3 Solubility - solids in solvents The solubility of a solid depends on – the temperature of the solvent – the intermolecular forces between the solid and solvent Factors Affecting Solubility - Gases in Liquids and Solids in Liquids Solute Solvent Interactions Solute - Solvent Interactions • Depends on Temperature of Solids • Depends on Pressure of Gases (p 540) – Henry’s Law
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12/2/2009 4 Solubility - gases in water at 20 ºC at 1 atm Solubility increases with increasing molar mass London Dispersion N 2 0.69 x 10 -3 Dispersion forces increase with increasing molar mass. London Dispersion London Dispersion London Dispersion Polar CO O 2 Ar Kr 1.04 1.38 1.50 2.79 x 10 -3 x 10 -3 x 10 -3 x 10 -3 Dispersion forces increase with increasing molar mass. For two gases of roughly equal molar mass (N 2 and CO), the more polar molecule (CO) will be more soluble in water because of a dipole-dipole component in addition to the solute- solvent attractions.
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This note was uploaded on 05/11/2010 for the course CHEM 1201 taught by Professor Cook during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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ch.13 - 12/2/2009 What!are!the!Goals!(Chapter!13)?

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