lecture 3

lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Chemistry Fundamentals Atoms Elements...

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1 Lecture 3 Chemistry Fundamentals Atoms Elements Electron Configurations Chemical Bonds Basic type of Chemical Reactions Biological Molecules Inorganic – w/o carbon Water and its properties. Organic Definition of an atom. Parts of an atom. Determination of atomic number, atomic weight (mass). 1. The structure of atoms Definition of an atom Atom smallest unit of matter. Atom cannot be broken down further without losing the quality of the element. Parts of an atom centrally located nucleus protons (+ particles) neutrons (neutral - uncharged particles) electrons that move around the nucleus electrons ( negative particle) pattern electronic configuration number of electron equal to number of protons Fig. 2.2 [7 th ] Atomic number atomic number = number of protons in the nucleus hydrogen [H] =1 Carbon [C] = 6 Atoms with the same number of protons behave the same way chemically and are classified as " chemical elements " periodic table list of elements 92 naturally occurring elements Only about 26 elements commonly found in living things. Elements Atoms with the same number of protons behave the same way chemically and are classified as " chemical elements " periodic table list of elements 92 naturally occurring elements Only about 26 elements commonly found in living things. 98% weight of humans and bacterial cells six elements = CHNOPS Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur.
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2 Atomic Weight and Isotopes Atomic weight (mass) = number of protons + neutrons. Carbon's [C] atomic weight = 12 Oxygen's [O] atomic weight is 16 (8 protons and 8 neutrons) " isotopes " are atoms with different number of neutrons in their nuclei. oxygen 97.7% have 8 neutrons oxygen 0.2% contain 10 neutrons oxygen 0.004% contain 9 neutrons Periodic Chart of Elements Electrons Configurations electrons are arranged in " electron shells " - regions of different energy levels innermost shell- from nucleus. lowest energy level 1 = can hold 2 electrons second shell can hold 8 electrons third shell can hold 8 (18) electrons Electron Configuration continued Hydrogen Carbon Oxygen Chlorine Fig. 2.1 [7 th ] Electronic Configuration Electronic configurations continued Why important? chemical properties of atoms is function
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This note was uploaded on 05/11/2010 for the course BIOL 1011 taught by Professor Gayda,r during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Chemistry Fundamentals Atoms Elements...

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