lecture2-6 - Lecture 2 - Outline Development of...

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1 Lecture 2 - Outline Development of Microbiology A. Discovery of microorganisms is dependent on microscope. B. Experimental science removed belief in “spontaneous generation”. C. Early observations relating microbes and diseases. D. The Golden Age of Microbiology. Founders of Microbiology Leeuwenhoek Pasteur Koch Discovery of microorganisms is dependent on microscope Robert Hooke – Curator of Experiments for the Royal Society of London • 1665 published Micrographia • Description of microscopes including the compound microscope (It was first described at end of 16 th Century) • Observational drawings 25X of cells and common bread mold (First observation of a microoganism) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek – cloth merchant Holland saw Hooke’s Micrographia Became interested in microscopes Became skilled in grinding single piece glass lens microscopes - Simple microscopes Leewenhoek Microscope. • Single lens • Magnification around 300X to 500X Antoni van Leeuwenhoek communicated his observation with Royal Society of London. 1674 - found “wee animicules” in pond water (probably protozoa). 1684 – bacterial cells from dental plaque (first finding of bacteria) “The number of these animalcules in the scurf of a man’s teeth are so many, that I believe they exceed the number of men in a kingdom.” -- Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, 1684 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek The Transition Period Leeuwenhoek time: 1. Belief animalcules arises spontaneous. 2. No correlation between disease and microbes
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2 Spontaneous generation • Basis of the doctrine • Redi's experiments • Needham's objections • Spallanzani's experiments • Pasteur’s experiments B. Experimental science removed belief in “spontaneous generation”. Spontaneous Generation Spontaneous generation was belief until early 18th century that life arises spontaneously from non-living matter. Francesco Redi’s experiments [1688] • Disproved that maggots arise from decaying meat. Fig. 1.4 Spontaneous generation (continued) Fact: It was known that if an extracts of meat broth was prepared and left at room temperature, it soon became cloudy from the growth of microbes. Where did these microbes come from? Two schools of thought: a. Spontaneous generation hypothesized decay of complex organisms results in their molecules reorganizing into animalcules b. Formed from seeds or germs. living cells arise only from other living cells. John Needham’s Experiment [1748] • John Needham was a British clergyman and a vitalist . – Vitalist believed a “vital force” pervaded all organisms. Experiment – boiled mutton gravy and sealed the tubes with cork. Result : Found microscopic animals Proof – Putrefaction could generate the vital force needed for spontaneous generation [ Was elected to Royal Society of London ] Lazzarro Spallanzani experiment [1767] Italian priest Lazzarro Spallanzani first suggested: life arise only from other living cells He showed that heating a sealed flask
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This note was uploaded on 05/11/2010 for the course BIOL 1011 taught by Professor Gayda,r during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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lecture2-6 - Lecture 2 - Outline Development of...

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