lecture14-6 - Lecture 14 Airborne Bacterial Disease...

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1 Lecture 14 Airborne Bacterial Disease (Chapter 9) A. Diseases of the Upper Respiratory Tract Streptococcal diseases Diptheria Pertussis (whooping cough) Meningococcal meningitis B. Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract Tuberculosis Pneumonias (typical and atypical) Legionnares’ disease Q fever Psittacosis and Chlamydial Pneumonia Investigating Diseases Both words “ virulence ” and “ pathogenicity ” are often used interchangeable to describe bacteria that cause disease. •“ Pathogenicity ”is qualitative - indicates a bacterium can cause disease. Virulence ” implies a quantitative measure of disease potential. (virulence factors) – Where disease potential is a function of the number of bacteria with which a host is initially infected multiplied by the virulence of the bacterium. – Note: the number and virulence of the bacteria to produce disease is lessened by the host's resistance capacity (health). Structure of Respiratory System Upper respiratory system consists of the nose and throat, including the middle ear and auditory tubes. Structure of Respiratory System Lower Respiratory System consists of the larynx, trachea , bronchial tubes , and lungs. Microbial Diseases of Upper Respiratory System Membrane covering brain and spinal cord (meninges) become inflamed. Primary in children under age 4. Severe headache, sudden high fever, stiff neck. Meningitis Neisseria meningitidis Hemophilus influenza Cold-like symptoms, mucus accumulates, intense spasms of coughing. Pertussis - whooping cough Bordetella pertussis Mild sore throat, slight fever swelling in neck., toxin production damages organs. Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Red pharyngeal lining, patches of pus, pain on swallowing, enlarge tonsils and lymph nodes. Strep. throat Streptococcal pharyngitis Streptococcus pyogenes Characteristics Disease Pathogen Terms describing upper respiratory infections: Pharynigitis - sore, inflamed throat Laryngitis - inflammation of the larynx, Tonsillitis - inflammation involving the tonsils Sinusitis - infection of the paranasal sinus cavity Epiglottitis - inflammation of the flaplike structure of cartilage that prevents material from entering the larynx.
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2 Streptococcal diseases Streptococcus pyogenes Aerotolerant anaerobes Gram + cocci in chains Reservoir: throat flora or skin of carriers. Virulence factors Beta-hemolytic M protein Erythogenic (“red-forming”) toxins Other invasion enzymes Streptokinase – dissolve blood clots Hyaluronidase – allows tissue penetration Invasion enzymes Streptokinase allows streptococci to escape from a fibrin clot. Hyaluronidase –
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lecture14-6 - Lecture 14 Airborne Bacterial Disease...

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