Comprehensive Report-Revised

Comprehensive Report-Revised - North Carolina Agricultural...

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North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University School of Education Human Development and Services ADED 700 History and Philosophy of Adult and Continuing Education Spring, 2008 Comprehensive Report History of Adult Education Date of Completed Report: April 28, 2008 Submitted by: Julia A. McCain Submitted to: Dr. Sharon Waldrum
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The use of the term adult education occurred in Europe, particularly England, in the early nineteenth century. In the United States, the term adult education grew out of the late nineteenth century educational outreach by public schools, universities, public libraries, and museums for adults (Stubblefield p. 2). By the 1920s, the term adult education was referred to designating and classifying educational programs for adults (Stubblefield and Rachal, 1992). Some regard adult education as noncompulsory or voluntary learning activities constituting a continuous learning process throughout life. Others include required activities in their definitions because a fairly large proportion of adults are required to participate in work-related adult education for continuing professional development purposes. Yet another way of defining adult education includes formal course work or training as well as informal educational activities, that is, those that do not involve an instructor, (Elias and Merriam). The First Morrill Act of 1862, also known as the “Land Grant Act” was enacted as law. This enactment donated public lands to states, the sale of which will be used for the “endowment, support, and maintenance of at lease one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including agriculture and the mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.” Many prominent state universities can trace their roots to this forward thinking legislation, (Britannica). During the formative years of the American adult education movement, progressivism flowed through its pores. Its influence was felt in the city through the settlement houses, workers’ education, and the adult evening schools; in the country
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through the vocational institute, folk school, and Cooperative Services. Stubblefield and Keane (1994) state that progressivism was inspired by the adverse conditions of city life, factory and immigration (p. 171). Further, they note it began first as a local and state response in the 1890s and then grew into a national reform movement. Although quite diverse in their political agendas, progressive reformers agreed that the people was responsible for each other and for establishing new social organizations to create a more human society (p. 171). Today, many contemporary efforts in adult and continuing education have spurned from progressive ideas. However, liberal education was very popular with Europeans and was the ideal working philosophy and way of schooling at the beginnings of the American educational institutions. At the state level, evening schools for adults, part-time education, citizenship
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Comprehensive Report-Revised - North Carolina Agricultural...

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