5 Silicon 10

5 Silicon 10 - Silicon Our goal is to exploit scaling...

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Unformatted text preview: Silicon Our goal is to exploit scaling opportunities but Who needs it? Can they (or we) afford it? How do we do it? P erformance, P rice and P hysics ! The exploitation of silicon The best place to start a discussion of how we make chips and ultimately exploit scaling is to talk about the starting material silicon! Many texts (including Wolf & Tauber) give good coverage of the key facts of silicon (purification, growth, etc.). In the lectures following this one, we will escalate the discussion to Device sub-structures MOS device operation Semiconducting materials ll lll lV V Vl Be B C N O Mg,Zn Al Si P S Ca,Cd Ga Ge As Se Sr, Hg In Sn Sb Te Increase Z, decrease E g C Si Ge Types: elemental l V compound lll- V , ll- V l, etc. We have a few choices Why is silicon so good? (Compared to the others) Cost Structure Purity Similar e & h mobilities Doping controls electrical properties Robust (thermally, mechanically, chemically) Adherent passivating oxide Good oxide interface Oxide is excellent insulator Oxide is thermally stable Silicon purification & growth Raw material (silica sand) Reduce SiO 2 to Si with C (MGS, 98%) Convert to trichlorosilane (Si + HCl -> SiHCl 3 ) Purify by distillation (< 1ppb) Reduce to Si (poly-EGS) CZ growth Saw, grind & polish Epi surface layer (if required) Find out more about this Diameter, thickness, bow, roughness Crystal orientation Surface defects Dopant (as a function of radius & length) Trace metals, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon Silicon specifications Wafers are produced by a few international suppliers...
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5 Silicon 10 - Silicon Our goal is to exploit scaling...

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