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9 Surfaces 10 - Surfaces and defects In this lecture we...

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Surfaces and defects In this lecture, we will look at surfaces, contamination, defects, cleaning, cleanrooms, and yield (the % of chips that actually work at the end of manufacturing process)
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Fab Test Customer Capability Yield Failure Process control (lecture 20) Scrap Wrong process Test areas, etc. (lecture 4) Parameters (lecture 23) Function Defects & contamination Field failures (lecture 21) This lecture Where we lose product
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“Any substance or form of energy that is unwanted or has an adverse effect.” Contamination exists in a number of forms including Particulate - dust, fibers, globules, etc. Dispersed - gases, vapors, condensate, etc. Biological - bacteria, fungi, spores, etc. Energetic - light, radiation, em fields, etc. Think of forms that will be damaging to ICs in production Contamination defined
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Particles in air Examples: External natural organic - pollen (plants) External natural inorganic - silica (soil) External industrial organic - hydrocarbons (cars) External industrial inorganic - soot (smokestacks) Internal natural organic - skin flakes (people) Internal natural inorganic - KCl crystals (people) Internal industrial organic - plastics (equipment) Internal industrial inorganic - metal flakes (equipment) Different control strategy for external vs. internal sources
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The killer defect concept How big does a particle have to be to destroy a device or a whole chip? Where are the sensitive areas? What does the Roadmap say about defects?
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Killer defects - origins 1. Dust in air 2. Particles in liquids 3. Generated in process Solutions: Accept Remove Eliminate Avoid Note - microcontamination management is a 15 week course! We need to understand the nature of contamination to be able to fight it!
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Killer defects - size In lithography, a defect can be imaged and its shape transferred to the material being patterned Results in short circuits between adjacent lines Particles can also have other effects Chemical Physical Mechanical Usually (CD/m) = ?
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  • Spring '10
  • Kozicki
  • Semiconductor device fabrication, Crystallographic defect, Cleanroom, Clean room design, Killer defects, native oxide

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