20 Architecture & failure 10

20 Architecture & failure 10 - Architecture &...

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Here we generate the underlying rules for the compilation of (competitive) silicon processes - Thermal budget becomes very important - Process architecture is governed by this Poor materials, device, and circuit design can lead to failure - Latch-up, hot electrons, electromigration, . .. This lecture covers the basic premise of process architecture and the major failure mechanisms in devices and circuits…
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How we can view the business Thousands of products Hundreds of process variations Dozens of process platforms Common physics, chemistry, materials, equipment
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What do we want to make? Desired device structure Process interactions occur Profiles change Final dimensions vary (Limited measurement) (Can’t perform final But during processing
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And the targets are becoming tougher to attain… Year 1999 2001 2003 2005 2008 2011 CD (half-pitch nm) DRAM 180 150 130 100 70 50 DRAM (Gbit) 1 2 4 8 16 64 GBits/cm2 0.27 0.49 0.89 1.6 4 10 M logic transistors/cm2 6.6 13 24 44 109 270 MPU transistors/chip (M) 24 48 95 190 540 1500 Field size (mm2) 800 800 800 800 800 800 Wafer diam (mm) 200 300 300 300 300 300 Max clock (GHz) 1.2 1.4 1.7 2 2.5 3 MPU Do (Y=75%, m-2) 1700 1700 1400 1250 1100 960 Vdd (max) 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 Cost/bit DRAM pkg (micro.c) 42 21 11 5.3 1.9 0.6 Cost/T pkg (micro.c) 1735 870 430 220 110 27 Tox (nm) 2.2 1.7 1.7 1.3 1.0 0.7 Sidewall spacer (nm) 100 80 70 60 45 30 Channel conc (*1E18 cm-3) 2.0 2.7 3.3 4 8 14 MPU gate length (nm) 140 100 90 65 45 30 Lots of process interactions to balance… so how do we do it? - Massive DoE? (too costly) - Common rules? (too many cases) - Use appropriate ARCHITECTURE to reduce the effects of interactions!
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Goals for any process architecture Provide a sound basis for calculation Account for dominant control factors Cover several generations Easy to understand and use Build from: process steps short flows whole process Validate by: parameters simulation product test
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The best approach to process design KISS (keep it simple, stupid!) - the 7 rules 1. Start with simplest possible structure 2. Elaborate only when necessary
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20 Architecture & failure 10 - Architecture &...

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