27 Technology limits 10

27 Technology limits 10 - Technology Limits This lecture...

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Unformatted text preview: Technology Limits This lecture covers how we may go beyond existing processing technology to the deep sub-0.1 m regime How far can we extend todays technology for: Lithography? Etch? Thermal processing? Low leakage devices? Resolution = Depth of focus = The limits of lithography NA k 1 2 2 ) ( NA k If we cant print small features, we cant make small features! Process and material improvements Lens design, sources and resists 1980 1990 2000 2010 1 0.5 k NA g i KrF ArF Scale is wavelength in microns Note: CD reduction has been attacked via every accessible F 2 Phase Shift Masks Use interference Extra layer of transmissive material added Different refractive index Patterned at edges of features Resolution Enhancement Technologies (RET) Outriggers/Serifs Use interference Extra features added to layout Example Lithography tools Optical E-beam Ion-beam Contact Hg source Write Proximity Projection Projection 1:1 print EUV Reduction X-ray Laser DUV Write Direct Direct Reticle The shaded ones are those currently in use Lithography as a technology driver Year 10 1 0.1 Min CD (microns) 70 80 90 Contact Projection print Prox Stepper Electron beam (mostly R & D & maskmaking) Soft and hard X-ray 00 436 365 248 193 157 How low can we go in wavelength? Lithography trends and limits of resolution 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Wavelength/ Minimum Feature Size 100 1000 200 300 500 700 70 Trend of ULSI Miniaturization x0.7/3 Years Trend of Exposure Wavelength Reduction Theoretical Resolution Limit using Resolution Enhancement Technology g-line i-line KrF ArF F 2 cm.bell-labs.com/cm/amg/ SCALPEL-whitePaper12-99.pdf The challenge for optics Lens NA is nearing practical maximum k value is nearing its Rayleigh limit Only wavelength left as a variable for improvement 2 conflicting requirements: nm NA...
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27 Technology limits 10 - Technology Limits This lecture...

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