P10-Lecture 4- Evidence of Natural Selection- Feb.1

P10-Lecture 4- Evidence of Natural Selection- Feb.1 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Evidence for evolution cont. Evidence For Evolution s 3. Vestigial Structures E.g. x Goose bumps s 3. Vestigial Structures E.g. x Whale teeth x Whale pelvis Evidence For Evolution Vestigial Structures E.g. s 3. x Cave organisms Evidence For evolution s 3. Vestigial Structures- E.g. x Vestigial wings Evidence For evolution s 3. Vestigial Structures E.g. molecular x Pseudogenes See Fig. 20.9; pp.425-426 Evidence For evolution s 3. Vestigial Structures x "Lesbian" lizards E.g. (even behavior) See Fig. 48.1 Evidence For evolution s 4. Biogeography- study of distribution of organisms x Small scale E.g. 3 Cave organisms usually related to nearby noncave organisms, rather than cave dwellers in other parts of the world Blind cave fish Dr. William Jeffery "Lens are able to stimulate development of eye parts that have been lost during the past million or so years of cave fish evolution." Dr. Jeffery Evidence For evolution s 4. Biogeography 3 Galapagos x Small scale E.g. finches related to South American birds of very different habits and appearance From S.America Evidence For evolution s 4. Australia Biogeography x Larger scale: e.g. Australian marsupials fit many of the ecological niches of placental mammals on other continents. Evidence For evolution s 4. Biogeography x Larger scale x Huge scale - fauna show history of continental drift 3 Alfred Wegener 3 E.g. Close relationship of fossil and living organisms. * Coelocanths Pangaea Evidence for evolution 5. Biochemical- DNA is in all life; same 20 amino acids used 5. Biochemistry: Hemoglobin Differences Organisms compared s Human - Mouse s Human - Chicken s Human - Newt s Human - Carp s Human - Shark - Amino Acids Different 16 35 62 68 79 Biochemistry: - hemoglobin Differences Organisms compared s Human - Chimpanzee Amino Acids Different 1 1 14 14 23 25 Human - Gorilla s Human - Rabbit Human - Red Fox s Human - Camel Human - Zebra Evidence For evolution s 6. Direct observation or strong inference of evolutionary change. x E.g. Evolution of disease resistance x Sticklebacks x Finches x Artificial breeding s Your doctor prescribes an antibiotic and cautions you to take every pill. Why? Real Time Evolution: Antibiotics Penicillin Chloramphenicol Tetracycline Erythromycin Ampicillin Year Resist. Years to Introduced Observed Resistance 1943 1947 1948 1952 1961 1946 1959 1953 1988 1973 3 12 5 36 12 Evidence For evolution E.g. Insecticide Resistance Real Time Evolution: Biocides Year Introduced Resistance Observed Years to Resistance DDT 2,4 D Atrazine Picloram Diclofop 1942 1945 1958 1963 1980 1947 1951 1968 1988 1987 5 11 10 25 7 Insecticide Resistance in Colorado Potato Beetle on Long Island, NY Year Introduced Resist. Seen Years to Resist. DDT Dieldrin Carbaryl Carbofuran Esfenvalerate Imidacloprid 1945 1954 1959 1974 1983 1995 1954 1957 1963 1976 1984 2000 7 3 4 2 1 5 Evidence For evolution s 6. Direct observation or strong inference of evolutionary change: x Finches Evidence For evolution s Direct observation or strong inference of evolutionary change x Artificial breeding 3 Pigeons 3 Dogs Evidence For evolution All Have Wolf Ancestor Breeding of Plants: Brassica oleracea cauliflower collard greens broccoli brussels sprouts bok choy Summary s Evolution is a testable hypothesis s Evolution is supported by a vast array of independent types of data: x Homologies: x Fossils x Vestigial structures x Genetics x Biogeography, Geology x Observation and strong inference Comparative anatomy; development ...
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