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Summaries for Exam 1 Material

Summaries for Exam 1 Material - Summaries for Exam 1...

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Summaries for Exam 1 Material (corrected for Lecture 6) Lectures 2 – 13 Topics covered on Exam 1 : Patterns in nature Darwinian evolution Principles of natural selection Evidence for evolution Mitosis & Meiosis Mendelian genetics Non-Mendelian genetics Types of variation Human genetic disorders Types of natural selection Evolution of disease Sexual selection Lecture 2: Patterns in nature Organisms are very complex Natural Selection Adaptations arise via Natural selection Not all useful features are adaptations for that use Natural selection cannot produce perfection History Constraint Compromise Convergence is common Similar adaptations under similar circumstances Independent similarities are called analogous (convergent) Groups within groups The basis for Linnean classification Nested groups are branches of the tree of life Homologous structures are found in a common ancestor Lecture 3: Darwin, Wallace & N.S. Prevailing views prior to Darwin Extinction, Cuvier & catastrophism Lamarck & constancy of species Inheritance of acquired characteristics Hutton & gradualism Lyle & uniformitarianism Darwin & the Beagle voyage Darwin & Wallace Darwin’s basic argument for Natural Selection:
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1. Variation - observable, but under appreciated 2. Heritable variation - Already known that this could happen, but not known how. (see Mendel!) 3. Struggle to exist Influenced by Malthus 4. Differential reproductive success 5. Change in population’s characteristics = evolution Lecture 4: Premises of N.S. Evolution is a testable hypothesis Evolution is supported by a vast array of independent types of data Homologies, Comparative anatomy, Development Vestigial organs Fossils Genetics Biogeography, Geology Observation and strong inference Natural Selection 1) Variation 2) Heritable variation 3) Struggle 4) Differential reproduction based on heritable variation 5) Changes in heritable characteristics of the population - evolution as a
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