emot_forecast_gender differences - World Applied Sciences...

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World Applied Sciences Journal 5 (1): 42-53, 2008 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2008 Corresponding Author: Sengul Hablemitoglu, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, College of Home Economics, Ankara University, Irfan Bastug Street, No. . 9, Aydinlikevler 06130, Ankara, Turkey 42 Gender Differences in the Influence of Egocentrism and Focalism on Turkish Young People’s Optimism: Are Young Men More Optimistic or Young Women More Realistic? Sengul Hablemitoglu and Filiz Yildirim Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, College of Home Economics, Ankara University, Turkey Abstract: This study was planned and conducted to define the gender differences in the influence of egocentrism and focalism (cognitive and motivational factors) on young people’s optimism and their perception of control which means “controllability of life”. This study was conducted face to face by interviewing a total of 263 university students in Turkey, consisting of 127 females and 136 males, who are studying in Ankara University. Three scales were taken into account in this study - unrealistic and future orientation scales have focalism and egocentrism factors; perception of control scale. In order to test the reliability of questionnaire, the findings were calculated by “Cronbach Alpha” as inner consistency coefficient. Each scale was found valid and reliable at the rate of 83 % - 93 %. The impact of two factors (egocentrism and focalism) related to gender on young people’s optimism was examined with “independent-samples t test”, it was used to define the gender differences in that.05,.01,.001 levels of used throughout the analysis. As a second analysis “spearman’s rank order correlation analysis” was used for the interaction among gender differences depending on influence of egocentrism and focalism on young people’s optimism bias and their perception of control. The results indicated students’ degree of control perceptions and optimism and realistic behaviors according to gender in terms of egocentrism and focalism differed. Key words: Optimism bias % Unrealistic optimism % Future orientation optimism % Perception of control % Egocentrism % Focalism INTRODUCTION university, transfer from Vocational High Schools, 2 year Youth is a pivotal time during life span of human In addition, young people face many problems being, during which patterns of adult behavior begin to be brought by education system in university such as established. Youth today face several grave risks related adaptation to the new environment, deciding by to behaviors, such as physical, economical, themselves, taking responsibility and bearing the psychological, social, performance which are common in consequences, being successful at lessons, meeting this developmental period [1,2]. accommodation needs and making friends [4]. All these Turkey’s transition process from agricultural have an effect on young people’s perception of control community to industrial community, integration with on possible risks in their future life, future-orientation
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emot_forecast_gender differences - World Applied Sciences...

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