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ch24 - Chapter 24 TITLE AND RISK OF LOSS Types of Potential...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 24 TITLE AND RISK OF LOSS Types of Potential Problems Damage to Goods: What if neither Buyer nor Seller is responsible? What liability does a Carrier have? Creditors' Claims or Seizure of Goods. Insurable Interest. 2 Determining Rights: Identification of Goods Existing Goods: physically present and owned by Seller at the time of contract. When Seller or Buyer selects goods, they are "identified." Future Goods: do not exist or not owned by seller at the time of contract. Fungible Goods: indistinguishable. Identification Gives Buyer an Insurable Interest. 3 Determining Rights: Passage of Title Document of Title: facilitates transfer of ownership without actually moving the goods. A warehouser stores the goods of others for compensation and has the rights and duties of a bailee in an ordinary mutual benefit bailment. Warehouse receipt given to the depositor (bailor) of the goods. Bill of Lading: carrier accepts goods for shipment. 4 Passage of Title: Negotiability of Documents of Title In some cases, a warehouse receipt can be bought, sold, or used as security to obtain a loan. A nonnegotiable warehouse receipt states that the goods received will be delivered to a specified person. A negotiable warehouse receipt states that the goods will be delivered "to the bearer" or "to the order of" a named person. 5 Passage of Title Under Article 2 Existing Goods Identified? Yes Delivery? No Document of Title? Yes No Yes FOB Destination FOB Shipment No Future Fungible At time of contract When Shipped, Marked; or Otherwise Designed Title Cannot Pass Title passes upon tender Title Passes upon Delivery of Title Document Title Passes upon Delivery of Goods to Carrier Title Passes at Time of Contracting 6 Negotiation of Documents WAREHOUSER (Issuer) (Bailee) GOODS SELLER (Depositor) (Bailee) WAREHOUSE RECEIPT BUYER WAREHOUSE RECEIPT Indorsement and delivery value/good faith due negotiation PURCHASER OF WAREHOUSE RECEIPT right to goods or right to negotiate further 7 Limitation of Liability A warehouser may limit its liability for loss or damage to goods due to its own negligence to an agreed valuation of the property stated in the receipt. The depositor must be given the right to store the goods without the limitation at a higher storage rate. 8 Passage of Title in Bailments Generally, a seller can only sell what he owns. Stolen Property: finder of stolen property (or a thief) cannot pass good title to a third party, even if the buyer purchased in good faith. Estoppel. 9 Delivery and Shipment Terms Unless otherwise agreed, the Seller is only required to make shipment to the Buyer, i.e., place the goods in a carrier's possession. FOB Place of Shipment. FOB Place of Destination. FAS. CF and CIF. COD. 10 Passage of Title in Shipment Contracts FOB Place of Shipment Contract. Title passes from S B when S places goods with carrier. FOB Place of Destination Contract. Title passes from S B when goods are tendered to the Buyer. 11 Determining Rights: Risk of Loss ROL determines who must pay if the goods are damaged or destroyed. Non-Shipment Contracts. Merchant Seller: ROL passes from S B upon B's actual receipt of goods. Non-Merchant Seller: ROL passes from S B upon tender of goods. 12 Determining Rights: Risk of Loss Shipment to Buyer: ROL passes from S B when tendered to carrier for shipment. Contract for Delivery: ROL passes from S B when goods tendered at destination by carrier. 13 Determining Rights: Damage or Destruction of Goods Identified Goods Before ROL passes. If total loss, contract is cancelled by law. If partial loss, B has option to accept or reject. Identified Goods After ROL passes. Buyer's loss (insurable interest). Un-Identified Goods. No ROL to Buyer, Seller's loss. 14 Risk of Loss in Shipment Contracts Rights of Common Carriers. Security lien interest on goods that it transports. Right to compensation per agreement. Duties of Common Carriers. Deliver the goods as agreed. 15 Risk of Loss in Shipment Contracts A common carrier is absolutely liable for loss or damage to the goods. Exceptions: Loss was caused solely by an act of God, Act of a public enemy, Act of a public authority, Act of the shipper, or Inherent nature of the goods. 16 Risk of Loss in Shipment Contracts Seller is Liable for Damages from Delay. Limitation of Carrier Liability. Unless prohibited by law, carriers can contractually limit their liability. Example: Airbills limit liability to $100, unless insurance is purchased. If Seller ships non-conforming goods and Buyer reject, ROL stays with Seller. 17 Determining Rights: Special Situations Returnable Goods Transactions: Sale on Approval, Sale or Return. Consignments and Factors: A factor is a special type of bailee who has possession of someone else's property for the purpose of selling it. This arrangement is commonly called selling on consignment, and the owner is called a consignor. The factor, or consignee, receives a commission on the sale. Self-Service. Auction Sales. 18 ...
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