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Carbonyl_Condensation_Reactions

Carbonyl_Condensation_Reactions - Carbonyl Condensation and...

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Carbonyl Condensation and Related Reactions - 1 Reaction Nucleophile Source Electrophile Source Products Mechanistic Basis Synthetic Utility Halogenation H O Aldehyde or ketone Br—Br H O Br Acid & base- catalyzed Enolization substituted ketones and aldehydes HVZ HO O carboxylic acid PBr 3 /Br 2 HO O Br Acid-catalyzed Enolization substituted acids Alkylation H O aldehyde or ketone R—X X=Cl, Br. I H O R Base-catalyzed Enolization; S N 2 alkylated ketones & aldehydes Alkylation via Enamines H N Enamine R—X X=Cl, Br, I H O R Nucleophilic addition- elimination; S N 2 alkylated ketones & aldehydes Aldol Condensation H O aldehyde or ketone O aldehyde or ketone H O OH aldol H O , unsat. Nucleophilic Addition - Elimination , unsaturated carbonyl compounds Crossed Aldol (Claisen- Schmidt) H O aldehyde H Ph O No H H Ph O OH aldol H Ph O , unsat. Nucleophilic Addition - Elimination , unsaturated carbonyl compounds Perkin Condensation O O O anhydride H Ph O no H O Ph O O OH O Ph O O , unsat.
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