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Chapter_31_to_post - Chapter 31 Fungi Fungal Form and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 31 Fungi Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Hyphae and mycelium Mycelium interwoven mass of hyphae Hyphae- thread-like filaments, one cell thick Reproductive structure or fruiting body See Fig. 31.2 Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Hyphae and mycelium Hyphae Mycelium Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Septate hypha Aseptate hypha, a.k.a. coenocytic See Fig. 31.3 Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Cell walls contain chitin Fungal Form and Function Immobile adults Fungal Form and Function Unlike plants and animals, no distinct embryo is formed during early development Fungal Form and Function Nutrition Chemoheterotrophic Fungi exude exoenzymes that break down organic molecules that the fungi can absorb and use as a supply of both energy and carbon Fungal Form and Function Nutrition Chemoheterotrophic Saprobic digest dead organisms and waste products Parasitic digest live organisms Mutualistically symbiotic form associations with other organisms for mutual benefit Fungal Life Cycles Three ploidy types Haploid most fungal hyphae and all spores have haploid nuclei Diploid diploid nuclei are found transiently during the sexual phase (if present) Heterokaryon unfused nuclei from different parents occupying the same unit of hypha Fungal Life Cycles Reproduction Asexual default mode under stable conditions; spores are produced Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2 n ) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores Haploid (1n) spores are produced by mitosis Spores are genetically identical to original mycelium Spores disperse and germinate to produce new myceliun See Fig. 31.5 Fungal Form and Function Reproduction Asexual default mode under stable conditions; spores are produced Sexual usually only under stressful conditions; spores are produced; many mating types possible (essentially like having many different sexes or genders) Sexual reproduction in fungi Haploid spores may disperse long distances away from the fruiting body Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2 n ) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores See Fig. 31.5 Fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy) Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2 n ) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY...
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Chapter_31_to_post - Chapter 31 Fungi Fungal Form and...

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