Exam 4 Review Questions Answered
Chapter 42- Circulation and respiration
hormone, sinus, capillary, artery, vein, a/v valves, semi-lunar valves,
ventricle, atrium, pulmonary vein vs. artery, systole, diastole, cardiac output,
myogenic, pacemakers, purkinje fibers, parasympathetic, acetylcholine,
sympathetic, adrenaline, medulla oblongata, systolic vs. osmotic pressure,
platelets, clotting mechanism, heparin, hemophilia, embolism (blood clot),
plasma, hematocrit, erythrocytes, leucocytes, plaque, counter-current
mechanism, partial pressure, vital capacity, tidal volume, residual capacity,
respiratory pigment, hemocyanin, hemoglobin, affinity,
Bohr effect, dissociation
11. What is the main function of the circulatory system? What are additional
Transporting gases and nutrients and removing wastes.
transporting hormones, immune function and thermoregulation
2. Describe the differences between open and closed circulatory systems and
give an example of each.
Which is better in most cases for an active animal?
Closed systems have higher b.p. and are usually found in more active animals
3. Describe how the heart has increased in complexity during vertebrate
evolution, and how the increased complexity helps in its function.
Four chambered hearts separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
4. Trace the flow of blood through the mammalian heart, noting where it is
oxygenated and deoxygenated, and what valves are involved.
You should know Fig. 42.7 well
5. Describe how heart beat rate is controlled both within the heart, and from
higher control centers.
Why does systolic pressure drop in the peripheral
circulatory system? Resistance.
Know which pacemakers are important and how resistance lowers b.p.
6. Know how blood pressure is measured.
Refer to Fig. 42.13
7. Know how the balance between systolic (hydrostatic) pressure and osmotic
pressure determines which way fluids will move across the epithelium of
Refer to Fig. 42.16
8. What mechanisms does the body have to protect against blood loss?
the cellular and fluid composition of the blood?
How is each involved in
Vasoconstriction and the clotting mechanism.
hematocrit is 45% and indicates if person is anemic (< 45 %) also refer to fig.
9. Briefly explain what physiological mal-functions cause heart attacks, strokes,
arteriosclerosis and hypertension.
Know what causes each disease
10.1What is the main function of the respiratory system?
How is diffusion
What factors maximize diffusion rates?