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Microquiz_6

# Microquiz_6 - ConcepTest 8.3 Up the Hill Two paths lead to...

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Unformatted text preview: ConcepTest 8.3 Up the Hill Two paths lead to the top of a big hill. One is steep and direct, while the other is twice as long but less steep. How much more potential energy would you gain if you take the longer path? 1) the same 2) twice as much 3) four times as much 4) half as much 5) you gain no PE in either case ConcepTest 8.3 Up the Hill Two paths lead to the top of a big hill. One is steep and direct, while the other is twice as long but less steep. How much more potential energy would you gain if you take the longer path? 1) the same 2) twice as much 3) four times as much 4) half as much 5) you gain no PE in either case Since your vertical position (height) changes by the same amount in each case, the gain in potential energy is the same. Follow-up: How much more work do you do in taking the steeper path? Follow-up: Which path would you rather take? Why? ConcepTest 8.4 Elastic Potential Energy How does the work required to stretch a spring 2 cm compare with the work required to stretch it 1 cm? 1) same amount of work 2) twice the work 3) 4 times the work 4) 8 times the work ConcepTest 8.4 Elastic Potential Energy How does the work required to stretch a spring 2 cm compare with the work required to stretch it 1 cm? 1) same amount of work 2) twice the work 3) 4 times the work 4) 8 times the work The elastic potential energy is 1/2 kx2. So in the second case, the elastic PE is 4 times greater than in the first case. Thus, the work required to stretch the spring is also 4 times greater. greater ConcepTest 8.7a Runaway Truck A truck, initially at rest, rolls down a frictionless hill and attains a speed of 20 m/s at the bottom. To achieve a speed of 40 m/s at the bottom, how many times higher must the hill be? 1) half the height 2) the same height 3) 2 times the height 4) twice the height 5) four times the height ConcepTest 8.7a Runaway Truck A truck, initially at rest, rolls down a frictionless hill and attains a speed of 20 m/s at the bottom. To achieve a speed of 40 m/s at the bottom, how many times higher must the hill be? 1) half the height 2) the same height 3) 2 times the height 4) twice the height 5) four times the height Use energy conservation: initial energy: Ei = PEg = mgH final energy: Ef = KE = 1/2 mv2 Conservation of Energy: Ei = mgH = Ef = 1/2 mv2 therefore: gH = 1/2 v2 So if v doubles, H quadruples! ConcepTest 8.7b Runaway Box A box sliding on a frictionless flat surface runs into a fixed spring, which compresses a distance x to stop the box. If the initial speed of the box were doubled, how much would the spring compress in this case? 1) half as much 2) the same amount 3) 2 times as much 4) twice as much 5) four times as much x ConcepTest 8.7b Runaway Box A box sliding on a frictionless flat surface runs into a fixed spring, which compresses a distance x to stop the box. If the initial speed of the box were doubled, how much would the spring compress in this case? 1) half as much 2) the same amount 3) 2 times as much 4) twice as much 5) four times as much Use energy conservation: initial energy: Ei = KE = 1/2 mv2 final energy: Ef = PEs = 1/2 kx2 Conservation of Energy: Ei = 1/2 mv2 = Ef = 1/2 kx2 therefore: mv2 = kx2 So if v doubles, x doubles! x ConcepTest 8.9 Cart on a Hill A cart starting from rest rolls down a hill and at the bottom has a speed of 4 m/s. If the cart were given an initial push, so its initial speed at the top of the hill was 3 m/s, what would be its speed at the bottom? 1) 4 m/s 2) 5 m/s 3) 6 m/s 4) 7 m/s 5) 25 m/s ConcepTest 8.9 Cart on a Hill A cart starting from rest rolls down a hill and at the bottom has a speed of 4 m/s. If the cart were given an initial push, so its initial speed at the top of the hill was 3 m/s, what would be its speed at the bottom? 1) 4 m/s 2) 5 m/s 3) 6 m/s 4) 7 m/s 5) 25 m/s When starting from rest, the cart's PE is changed into KE: PE = KE = 1/2 m(4)2 When starting from 3 m/s, the final KE is: KEf = KEi + KE = 1/2 m(3)2 + 1/2 m(4)2 = 1/2 m(25) = 1/2 m(5)2 Speed is not the same as kinetic energy ConcepTest 8.10b Falling Balls You throw a ball straight up into the air. In addition to gravity, the ball feels a force due to air resistance. Compared to the time it takes the ball to go up, the time it takes to come back down is: 1) smaller 2) the same 3) greater ConcepTest 8.10b Falling Balls You throw a ball straight up into the air. In addition to gravity, the ball feels a force due to air resistance. Compared to the time it takes the ball to go up, the time it takes to come back down is: 1) smaller 2) the same 3) greater Due to air friction, the ball is continuously losing mechanical energy. Therefore it has less KE (and energy consequently a lower speed) on the way down. This speed means it will take more time on the way down !! Follow-up: How does the force of air resistance compare to gravity when the ball reaches terminal velocity? ConcepTest 8.11a Time for Work I Mike applied 10 N of force over 3 m in 10 seconds. Joe applied the same force over the same distance in 1 minute. Who did more work? 1) Mike 2) Joe 3) both did the same work ConcepTest 8.11a Time for Work I Mike applied 10 N of force over 3 m in 10 seconds. Joe applied the same force over the same distance in 1 minute. Who did more work? 1) Mike 2) Joe 3) both did the same work Both exerted the same force over the same displacement. Therefore, both did the same displacement amount of work. Time does not matter for work determining the work done. done ConcepTest 8.12a Electric Bill When you pay the electric company by the kilowatt-hour, what are you actually paying for? 1) energy 2) power 3) current 4) voltage 5) none of the above ConcepTest 8.12a Electric Bill When you pay the electric company by the kilowatt-hour, what are you actually paying for? 1) energy 2) power 3) current 4) voltage 5) none of the above We have defined: Power = energy / time So we see that: Energy = power x time This means that the unit of power x time (watt-hour) is a unit of energy !! ...
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