Chapter19US - Chapter 19: The Cold War, 1945-1960 Section...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 19: The Cold War, 1945-1960 Section 1: Origins of the Cold War The United Nations -A new international peacekeeping organization. -April 1945, delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to adopt a charter for the UN. -Members would try to settle their differences peacefully. -It vowed to try to stop wars from starting & to end those that did break out. -All member nations belonged to the UN's General Assembly. -Representatives of 11 countries sat on a Security Council. The U.S., Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, & China had permanent The Potsdam Conference -Truman's first meeting with Stalin, July 1945. -To discuss the future of Germany and Poland. -Stalin wanted war payments from Germany. -Truman wanted a promise for free elections in Poland. -This is where Truman first heard about the successful testing of the atomic bomb. CONFLICTING POSTWAR GOALS The American View -To bring democracy & economic opportunity to the conquered nations of Europe & Asia. interest by providing markets for its products. The Soviet View -Rebuild in ways that would protect its own interests. -Establish SATALLITE NAITONS, countries subject to Soviet domination, on the western borders of the Soviet Union & would be friendly to Communist goals. -Stalin will install or support totalitarian Communist gov'ts in Eastern Europe. SOVIETS TIGHTEN THEIR HOLD -USSR quickly gained control over Eastern European nations freed from Nazi control. Albania & Bulgaria -ALBANIA: Communists forces drove out Germans by 1944. Elections held in 1945, anti-Communists leaders silenced, Communists won. -BULGARIA: Soviet troops enter in 1944. Communists secure hold by 1948. Czechoslovakia -Communist candidate won 40% of the vote in 1946.
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Sheet1 Page 2 -Plotted to take power by replacing all non-Communist police officers with party members. By 1948, Czechoslovakia was a Soviet satellite nation. Hungary & Romania -HUNGARY: 1945, Communist lost election. -Troops demanded control of police. -Arrested anti-communist leaders. -Won new elections in 1947. -ROMANIA: 1945, forced Romanian king to name a Communist as prime minister. -Less than two years later, the prime minister forced the king to resign. East Germany -Established national control of all East German resources & installed a brutal totalitarian gov't. -Known as German Democratic Republic. The Iron Curtain -Established Cominform, a Soviet agency intended to direct the activities of Communist parties throughout the world. -Churchill called on U.S. to help keep Stalin from closing the IRON CURTAIN of Communist domination & oppression around any more nations. -Set the tone for the COLD WAR, the competition that developed between the U.S.
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2010 for the course USH US History taught by Professor Mize during the Spring '10 term at West Point.

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Chapter19US - Chapter 19: The Cold War, 1945-1960 Section...

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