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Chapter17US - Chapter 17 World War II 1939-1945 Section 1...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 17: World War II, 1939-1945 Section 1: Prelude to Global War -In Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union TOTALITARIAN Gov'ts controlled every aspect of life. -These gov'ts used terror to suppress individual rights & to silence all forms of opposition. -Germany's Adolf Hitler & Italy's Benito Mussolini based their gov'ts on a philosophy called FASCISM. -Fascism places the importance of the nation above the value of the individual. -Communism (Soviet Union) calls for all society to jointly own the nation's means of production. -Communist Theory states that conflicts between workers & owners will not exist in a Communist society, because the workers are the owners. Mussolini Controls Italy -Called himself Il Duce ("The Leader"). -Organized Fascist groups throughout Italy. -BLACKSHIRTS used to terrorize & bring under control those who opposed him. -1922, made prime minister. -Suspended elections, outlawed all other political parties, & soon established a dictatorship. -October 1935, invaded Ethiopia. Hitler Rules Germany -1919, joins small political party known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NAZI). -November 1923, tried to overthrow German gov't. -Arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison -While in prison he wrote an autobiography titled MEIN KAMPF ("My Struggle"). -Outlined the Nazi philosophy, his views of Germany's problems, & his plans for the nation. -Highly critical of the nation's Jewish population, which he blamed for Germany's defeat in WWI. -Proposed strengthening the military & expanding its boarders. -Called for purification of the "Aryan Race". -Germany suffered high unemployment and massive inflation during the 1920s. -The Great Depression made matters worse. -Hitler promised to stabilize the country, rebuild the economy, & restore the empire that had been lost. -January 1933, Nazi party was the largest group in the REICHSTAG (German parliament) & Hitler became head of the German State. -He silenced his opposition, suspended civil liberties, & convinced the Reichstag to give him dictatorial powers. -He took the title Der Fuhrer (The Leader). Europe Goes to War -March 9, 1936, German troops move into the RHINELAND (A region in western Germany along the boarders of France & Belgium). -1936, alliance signed with Italy (Later with Japan) forming the Axis Powers.
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Sheet1 Page 2 The German Empire Grows -March 1938, German troops invade Austria and annex it into Germany. -Months later he demanded the SUDETENLAND (A region of eastern Czechoslovakia with a heavily German population). -MUNICH CONFERENCE, September 1938, Britain & France will follow a policy of APPEASEMENT (giving in to someone's demands in order to keep the peace) & agree to let Hitler have the Sudetenland. -March 1939, Hitler annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia. -September 1, 1939, invaded poland. -September 3, 1939, Britian & France declare war on Germany.
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