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PPT- Industrial Revolution

PPT- Industrial Revolution - THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN...

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Unformatted text preview: THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN AMERICA: The Age of Inventions 1865 - 1900 The Growth of Corporations Business Organization Before the Civil War: •businesses had single owners or partnerships. •goods were made and sold locally. Corporation – • • Fastest growing industries: Task: Can you name a company that was recently accused of being a monopoly? 1 Monopolies • • Sony Vaio Dell Dimension Apple I-Mac Gateway 7200S IBM NetVista $1,159.99 $1,129.99 $1,299.99 $1,119.99 $1,059.99 Apple Computers has created a monopoly. Task: Why can they charge whatever they want? They can now charge whatever they want for their product. Conglomerates & Pools Conglomerate – • •Usually formed by a merger. •Legal Examples: Pools – • • Example: Task: Are monopolies and pools good for the consumer? Explain. 2 Trusts Petro Oil Company Rayo Oil Company PETRO PETRO RAYO NUZZI RAYO SLOMIN Slomin Oil Company Meehan Oil Company SLOMIN Standard Oil Company NUZZI STANDARD OIL MEEHAN Nuzzi Oil Company MEEHAN STANDARD Standard Oil decides to start a trust Owner buys the stocks from other companies. Trusts This method disguised the fact that Standard Oil is really a monopoly! STANDARD OIL TRUST $ PETRO SLOMIN $ NUZZI $ RAYO $ MEEHAN STANDARD OIL $ $ 3 Entrepreneurs Andrew Carnegie – •Immigrated to U.S. from Scotland •At age 12, he worked in a textile factory •Entered the steel industry during the railroad boom. • John D. Rockefeller – •Entered the oil refining business during the Civil War. • • •Controlled all aspects of oil refining • Integration Vertical Integration – • • . Gallucci & Felice’s Gum Co. Horizontal Integration – 4 Integration Task: Vertically and Horizontally integrate your own company. Robber Barons or Philanthropists Philanthropist: Carnegie Rockefeller 5 Entrepreneurs J. Pierpont Morgan – •Trained as a banker •Made money through loans •Bought Carnegie Steel, merged it with other companies, and created U.S. Steel Corp. •Controlled electric, shipping, and insurance companies. Henry Ford – • •Introduced the Model T • •By speeding up production, cars became more affordable. Laissez-faire Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations – •Government and business don’t mix. •Laissez-Faire: Business leaders believed in Laissez-faire – • Task: Who would be believers in a laissez-faire system? Task: Is laissez-faire a good idea? What do you think? Explain. 6 Social Darwinism Charles Darwin – •Naturalist •Believed in natural selection. • Social Darwinism – • • Task: How do you think Social Darwinists felt about government involvement in regulating Big Business? Government Regulation Steps Toward Government Involvement – 1) Supreme Court Decisions • Munn v. Illinois: Supreme Court ruled that states could oversee business (which was private property) because business involved the public interest. • Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois: states could not regulate railroad rates on interstate lines. This allowed railroads to charge whatever they wanted with little interference. 2) Interstate Commerce Commission • Worked to stop railroad abuses like pools, rebates, and discounts to special customers. 3) Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Prohibited companies from forming monopolies. 7 Working Conditions Typical Work Week for the Unskilled MALE Worker – •Worked 10 – 12 hour days // 6 days a week •Salary: Less than $10.00 per week •Women, immigrants and children made less (approx 1/2 less) •Injuries on the job were the fault of the worker •Little, if no, attempt at workplace safety Pullman Company – •Made luxury rail cars •Built a town around his factory for workers to live and shop. •Workers got paid in paper money that could only be used in his town. Usually more expensive Task: Why did factory owners not care about workplace safety? Labor Unions Knights of Labor – • •Demanded: Terence Powderly METHOD: American Federation of Labor (A.F.L.) – • •Demanded: Samuel Gompers METHOD: Collective Bargaining: 8 Striking Rich get richer; poor get poorer Tensions increase between workers and management Step 1 Step 2 Workers join unions Business leaders oppose unions Workers demands not met – Workers strike Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Task: Why does government side with big business? Striking Great Railway Strike (1877) – Demands: Outcome: President Hayes calls in federal troops to end strike. Haymarket Riot (1886) – Demands: Outcome: Bomb goes off; Knights of Labor blamed Homestead Strike (1892) – Demands: Outcome: Violence erupts between plant security and striking workers. Federal troops called in to end strike. Union workers fired. Pullman Strike (1894) – Demands: Outcome: President Cleveland calls in federal troops to end the strike. Task: What do these strikes have in common? 9 Striking 1. The graph shows that the fewest work stoppages for the years shown occurred in a) 1885 b) 1890 2500 Work Stoppages 2000 c) 1905 2. According to the graph, in 1905 there 1500 a) were more work stoppages that in 1885. 1000 b) was about the same number of work stoppages as in 1885. 500 c) were fewer work stoppages than in 1885. 3. According to the graph, there were fewer work stoppages in the U.S. in a) 1890 than in 1895 b) 1885 than in 1895 c) 1900 than in 1895 0 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 4. According to the graph, the number of work stoppages in America a) Showed little change b) Went down after 1885 c) Showed many changes New Immigration Old Immigration – Took place between 1800 and 1880. They came from Northwestern Europe. New Immigration – “There was nothing in Italy, nothing...That’s why we came. To find work, because Italy didn’t have no work. Mama used to say, ‘America is rich, America is rich.” Task: Why are immigrants coming to America? 10 Melting Pot Task: Why is America considered a “melting pot”? • Task: Why? Nativist Reaction • Task: Why did they welcome immigrants? Task: Who would view immigrants as a threat and why? Nativists – • 1) immigrants took jobs away from Americans 2) immigrants drove down wages 3) social problems were caused by immigrants 4) immigrants had radical ideas 5) restrictions should be placed on immigration. Know Nothing Party (American Party), 1854 – 11 Limits on Immigration Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – • • Immigrants (in thousands) Limits on Immigration 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Total Immigration to the United States, 1860 - 1900 1860 1870 1880 Year 1890 1900 Immigrants Task: What may have caused the drop in immigration beginning in 1880? 12 Closure Task: Compare and contrast “old immigration” and “new immigration.” Task: Why did some people want to impose limitations on immigration? Task: Why was immigration important to the Industrial Revolution in the United States in the late 19th century? 13 ...
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