PPT - The Cold War

PPT - The Cold War - The End of World War II Task What type...

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Unformatted text preview: The End of World War II Task: What type of peace should be established with Germany and Japan? Why? Treatment of Germany Nuremberg Trials (1945 – 1946) – Treatment of Japan MacArthur supervises rebuilding of Japan - • • • Ruling: • • • • Division of Germany – • Impact of World War II Impact of World War II 1 War Deaths In Europe, 1939 to 1945 SOVIET UNION 10,000,000 Task: Which country suffered the greatest number of deaths? __________ How many deaths did this country suffer? __________ United Nations United Nations – 1945 International peace-keeping organization Goals: 1) 2) 3) 4) Task: Do you believe the United Nations is vital to peace and security of the world today? 2 Capitalism vs. Communism Directions: Allows you Government Allows you to own tells you to work in Check off private what to any field the system property. produce. of that best business fits the you like. description Allow you to make a profit off your work. There are no social classes. Everyone is equal, no matter what job you do. Society works together in cooperation and shares the benefits. Capitalism Communism Who Started the Cold War American Viewpoint “I believe that the Soviet Union started the Cold War. America wants to bring democracy to Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union is preventing this! We can’t turn our backs now! Stalin cannot be trusted. At the Yalta Conference, he promised to allow free elections in Poland and other Eastern European nations. It seems as if he is backing away from his promise. Communism needs to be stopped now before it spreads!” Soviet Viewpoint “The United States is responsible for starting this “war.” The Soviet Union possesses the right to control Eastern Europe. Just like the U.S. controls Latin America through the Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary, we have the right to influence Eastern Europe. The U.S. cannot be trusted! After all, they promised to invade France, but waited too long. As a result, many Russians died. They also refuse to share the secrets of the atomic bomb!” Task: Who do you think started the Cold War? Why do you believe that? 3 The Iron Curtain Descends Because the: 1) Soviets refused to allow free elections in Poland 2) U.S. refused to share the secrets of the atomic bomb • Stalin refused to withdraw troops from Eastern Europe. • He put Communist in power in Eastern European countries. • Travel, trade, and communication with the western world was stopped. “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent” - Winston Churchill Task: Why did Churchill call it an “iron curtain?” Containment America announces the policy of: CONTAINMENT Truman Doctrine – 1947 •Truman became worried about the spread of Communism in Eastern Europe. •He announced the policy of containment. • “I believe that it must be the policy of the U.S. to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures….We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way….Our help should primarily be through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” - Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan - 1948 •Poor and desperate countries were the most likely candidates to fall to communism. • • Task: Do you think the Marshall plan is a good idea? Why? 4 Nations In The Marshall Plan, 1948 The Berlin Airlift •The Allies couldn’t agree on what to do with Germany. • •Instead of 4 zones, now only 2! •West Germany – •East Germany – • • •Stalin blockades West Berlin, cutting off food and supplies. He hoped the Allies would give up West Berlin. • •Stalin, feeling defeated, gives up the blockade. Task: How’s the temperature of the Cold War doing? Draw in the temperature in Fahrenheit. 5 NATO and the Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) – • • Task: Create a definition for collective security. Warsaw Pact – Task: How’s the temperature of the Cold War doing? Draw in the temperature in Fahrenheit. The Atomic Threat “We have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the USSR.” •Americans feared suffering the same fate as the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. - Harry S Truman Task: How’s the temperature of the Cold •Truman created the Federal Civil Defense Administration to War doing? create posters and information on how to survive a nuclear Draw in the attack. temperature in •Truman approves the development of a more powerful bomb – Fahrenheit. the hydrogen bomb. • 6 The Atomic Threat Containment In Asia China – •China was a democracy, but it was unstable. •Warlords controlled come parts; communists controlled some parts. • • The Korean War • •After World War II, it was divided: •The North = •The South = •1950 – •President Truman uses emergency powers to order troops to protect South Korea from falling to the Communists. • 7 The Korean War Task: What policy was the United States enforcing? ________________________________ • • •Communist China assists North Korea, pushes U.S./U.N. forces back across the 38th parallel. 38th Parallel •General MacArthur believed the U.S. should remove the Communist government. • •The war is at a standstill. The war ends with everything staying as it did before the war. The Korean War Ends •The Korean War becomes a major topic in the 1952 election. • •“Ike” promises to get US troops home and end the war. •July 27, 1953 Korea is divided into two nations at the 38th parallel. Number Serving U.S. Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds not Fatal 5,720,000 33,652 3,262 103,284 Task: What did this war accomplish? Task: Why did this conflict become known as the “Forgotten War”? Task: How’s the temperature of the Cold War doing? Draw in the temperature in Fahrenheit. Task: Assess how the Korean War marked a change in the U.S. policy of Containment. 8 Red Scare Revisited The Loyalty Program – •Soviet spies were working in the U.S. (They helped get atomic secrets) •Republicans demanded a more stringent policy regarding Communist infiltration. • • • House Un-American Activities Committee – • •Targeted: •Because movies influenced the public, they wanted to make sure they weren’t sending Communist messages. • The Cold War “Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?” - HUAC Hollywood Ten – •Hollywood writers, directors, actors and producers were asked to testify before HUAC. •They were accused of having radical political associations. •Those who used the 5th Amendment were found guilty. •Those who questioned the validity of HUAC were found guilty. •Many of Hollywood’s finest were blacklisted including: Task: How’s the temperature of the Cold War doing? Draw in the temperature in Fahrenheit. 9 The Cold War Task: Explain what is happening in this cartoon? Task: What is happening to people’s civil rights in this cartoon? To Spy Or Not To Spy •Government official under FDR • • •Known members of the Communist Party. • • Task: Can you name this man who built his political career hunting Communists for HUAC? _______________________________ 10 McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy (R – Wisconsin) “I have here in my hand a list of 205 people who were known to the secretary of state as being members of the Communist Party who, nevertheless, are still working and shaping policy at the State Department.” •The number of Communists on the list constantly fluctuated. •He went on a massive hunt for Communists. •He attacked: • •Secretary of State George Marshall (known for what? • •Democrats, tired of McCarthy, wanted the Army hearing televised. • • • The Arms Race 1945 – Explodes 1st atomic bomb. 1949 – Explodes 1st atomic bomb. 1952 – Explodes 1st Hydrogen bomb 1953 – Explodes 1st Hydrogen Bomb 1955 – Begins building ICBMs 1954 – Begins building ICBMs. Task: a) Identify one word to describe the Cold War at this point. b) How’s the temperature of the Cold War doing? Draw in the temperature in Fahrenheit. 11 The Military - Industrial Complex WARNING!!!! WARNING!!!! WARNING!!!! Task: What happens to industries in America when America is at war? •Eisenhower warned America of the military-industrial complex. • • Task: Is this a good thing or a bad thing for America? Why? 12 ...
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