Biology Final Notes-1

Biology Final Notes-1 - BIOL Final Notes"The longer you...

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BIOL Final Notes “The longer you live the longer you should live” –Wiley “Evolution’s a bitch” –Wiley “Suckers are good to eat” –Wiley WHAT HAS EVOLUTION DONE FOR ME What has evolution done for me Agricultural crops and animal breeding for the past 8,000 years With the discovery of methods to reconstruct evolutionary relationships there is been a vast increase in the relevance of evolutionary biology to human society. Reconstructing Phylogenies 1859-1950- No coherent empirical methods 1950-1966- Emergence of Phylogenetic Systematics Phylogeny by discovery of the order of evolutionary innovation Ribotyping Fingerprinting or sequencing RNA Many diseases have unknown causes However, diseased tissues can be ribotyped. (Wiley Death Fish) This process involves extracting DNA from diseased tissues and then sequencing the DNA that codes for rRNA. If a disease agent such as a bacteria is present, then we will get ribosomal DNA sequences from the host (you) and the bacteria (the infection agent). Ribotyping: Phylogeny matching Once we have the rDNA sequences, we can plug them into a sequence matrix of all life and see where our unknowns appear on the tree of life. Our Food Chain Some products are easy to identify, but others are not. A slab of fish fillet from a sea bass looks like a slab of sih fillet from a farmed Asian catfish. But the sea bass costs $10/pound while the Asian catfish costs $4/pound. Yet, a simple phylogenetic analysis can sort out the sea bass from the catfish, giving regulatory agencies a new weapon to protect consumers from fraud. Directed Synthetic Evolution Enzymes for industry. Example, using evolutionary principles to increased enzyme activity of cellulose so that yields of ethanol from corn stalks can be industrially viable. Designing enzymes that assist in patient recovery: Short DNA molecules with enzyme function designed to leave specific mRNA. Egr-1 expression causes proliferation of cells in the arterial wall in response to angioplasty. Mouse models show that a synthetic DNA enzyme cleaves the mRNA, shopping proliferation. Poliomyelitis RNA virus Humans are the only host known Three strains of native virus Thousands of cases of polio in the 1950’s (including me!) Two decades of immunization has largely wiped out the disease on the NA continent. 95% effective against all 3 strains. Poliomyelitis Problem: Sporadic outbreaks
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BIOL Final Notes Hypothesis 1: The live attenuated vaccine has mutated Hypothesis 2: Polio virus from another part of the world has been introduced. Hypothesis 3: An undetected native strain has emerged from carriers. Discrimination of the three hypotheses has consequences for public health.
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This note was uploaded on 05/13/2010 for the course BIO 100 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '10 term at Missouri (Mizzou).

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Biology Final Notes-1 - BIOL Final Notes"The longer you...

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