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Unformatted text preview: Review Sheet Exam 3 Conflict Management (continued) Bargaining – Bargaining constitutes a unique form of conflict management in that participants negotiate mutually shared rules and then cooperate within these tules to gain a competitive advantage over their opponent.-Bargaining is often a formal activity in which disputants settle conflicts about scarce resources or policy disagreements.-Formal bargaining is marked by a clear understanding of the rules of the negotiation situation. Example: rule of “mutual concessions:” if one party in conflict gives something up, the other party should concede an issue of like value.-Bargaining is the strategy often used to settle intergroup or inter-organizational conflicts. Example: disputes between labor and management are typically settled through formal negotiation. What makes bargaining a unique form of conflict management? - It differs from other forms of conflict in its emphasis on proposal changes as a basis for reaching a joint settlement in cooperative- competitive situations. Distributive versus integrative approaches Distributive bargaining: the two conflicting parties are working to maximize their own gains and minimize their own losses. The bargaining centers on the limited resources that must be divided in the negotiation (e.g., wages, benefits, hours) Bargainers are working with a “fixed plot” – the only possible outcomes are win- lose situations or compromises. Integrative bargaining: the conflicting parties are trying to maximize gains for both parties. Thus bargainers discuss issues that could lead to a more creative solution to the problem at hand. Outcomes of integrative bargaining are often solutions that allow both parties to benefit, and communication tends to be marked by open disclosure, care full listening, and multiple communication channels. Bargaining can serve as “a forum for identifying problems, clarifying misconceptions, signaling needs and interests, and negotiating the meaning of organizational events. EX: A labor dispute between a nurses union and the administration of a large hospital. Bargainers often take distributive approach: for issues such as salary, working hours, vacation time, and health etc, to “Get” as much as possible. Integrative approach: bargainers may work on developing a new organizational model in which nurses share in management and participate is fiscal decision making and profit sharing. 1 Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining GOALS Maximize individual gains and minimize losses Maximize joint gains ISSUES Fixed- sum issues with limited resources Variable-sum issues shaped by overlapping positions OUTCOMES Compromises, trade – offs, and win-lose results Creative solutions not attributable to specific concessions COMMUNICATION Info seeking, withholding data, and deception in disclosures Open sharing of info, accurate disclosure of needs and objectives A positive approach to bargaining (“Getting to Yes”) Criteria for a good negotiation...
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- Spring '10
- Decision Making, participative decision making