EMS172L_ReportLecture_Handouts

EMS172L_ReportLecture_Handouts - EMS 172L: Electronic,...

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Unformatted text preview: EMS 172L: Electronic, Magnetic, and Optical Properties Laboratory Lecture: How to present your work Ricardo Ricardo H. R. Castro rhrcastro@ucdavis.edu Why do I need to write what I do? And why do I need to do it well? Communication between engineers (reports and articles) Communication between engineers and other departments (ex: marketing) If you don’t do it the right way, your effort in the lab won’t pay off The way you write will define your success. 2009 Bibliography There are many books related to this field that you’ll be able to find in ou library. I suggest: Day, R.A., How to write and publish a scientific paper, 5ª Edição, Editora ORYX, 1998. Types of documents Report Report = A written document describing original findings Article Article (paper) = A written and published report describing original findings Letter Letter = A written document shortly describing finding. Thesis Thesis = Proof of knowledge Book Book = Collection of Information Each of these have an specific audience and has a way to be done. This is not a “boring law”. This is just because the audience is expecting something. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 How it began? Historically: Descriptive, i.e. + First I did this, than I did that... + First I saw this, and than I saw that... This kind of approach still exists in the so-called letters. However, more complex works need to address the REPRODUCIBILITY The logic of IMRAD 1) What is the question (problem) to be studied? Answer: Introduction 2) How the problem was addressed? Answer: Methodology 3) What are the findings? Answer: Results 4) What do the findings mean? Answer: Discussion + IMRAD Introduction Methodology Results Discussion Articles, Reports Thesis, etc. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 A little bit more than IMRAD Title Title Authors Abstract Abstract IMRAD IMRAD Conclusion Conclusion Acknowledgments References References What is a good Title? First thing someone will read. May bring a good, or bad impression. Must be understandable for your audience Definition: The fewer number of words that describe the contend of the work Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 The size of a good Title Be careful with the too short: Ex: Studies on Steel Studies on Conductivity ...and too long: Ex: “about the manipulation of the band gap using liquid nitrogen to obtain specific electric properties of semiconductors forming p-n junctions” Longs: Always some useless words Shorts: not specific Try to be specific enough.... See the example: Action of Antibiotics in Bacteria Action: Inibition of Growth Antibiotics: Which? Penicilin Bacteria: Which?Tuberculosis New version: “Inibition of the growth of penicilin” tuberculosis via penicilin” Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Remember: the title is a label, a tag It does not need to be a sentence, with subject, verb... Ex: “ The dual phase steel is the best solution for Abstract Miniversion of the work It should be a summary of the IMRAD. It has to describe the work so the reader can judge if it is relevant for him. Usually 250 words One paragraph Structure: a) b) c) d) production of automobiles” 1) “IS” is a lost term 2) Titles should not be dictating. Other way to say the same: “Avaliation of Dual Phase Steel in Production of Automobiles” Main objectives and scope Methods used Summary of results Main conclusions (NO DISCUSSIONS) Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 EMS172L/2009 Abstract Verbs in the Past – the work is concluded! No figures, refereces, tables, etc. Language adequate to the reader you want to reach Use just the words you really need. A short abstract is not a bad abstract Einstein article had 5 alfa-numeric: Introduction This is not a revision of the literature This is a 2-3 pages statement to provide enough info for the reader to understand and evaluate the results without the need to go to the literature. It has to state the logic of your work This is written in the present It must have references, citing the text where you took that info from. It must present the nature and the scope of the problem You must guide the reader to your line of thinking Stablish the methods and why’s And cite the maind result! - No suspense! Gain the No reader attention here already mentioning the results and the importance. It doesn’t matter if is repeating and matter the abstract. the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science E = mc 2 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 EMS172L/2009 Materials and Methods This section shows complete and detailed info about the methods and materials you used in the experiments. used You must here explain the experimental design and cite the specific details to guarantee reproducibility – Temperature, Temperature, time, conditions, number of samples, which samples, why these samples, instruments, softwares, etc. softwares, The verbs are in the PAST. This is not a recipe. recipe. Results The time is the past (again) Create a logic sequence to present the data You can initially give a general overview of the results and then give the details Do not mix your data with others (from books, other articles, etc). You can only do this if you are comparing, so make sure it is clear what is what. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Results A few number can be presented in the text. Many need tables and graphs Tables: describe usually variable that influence the results, and may be used to show secondary results Graphs are important, and are used to show tha main results Be clear, direct. No problem if it is short. Don’t take too long to say something you can say in a few words: Ex: “It is clearly seen in Figure 1 that the potential increases”. Prefer: The potential increases (Figure 1) Tables: when to use them? Rule: Rule: do not use a table unless it is necessary If If you have just a few data, present in the text Do Do not show in a table very important data, but partial calculations, experimental conditions, etc. Use Use a consistent number of decimals Tables Tables are not lists of words Do not repeat the data you’re already presenting in a graph. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Example Table 2. Wrong again. Example: Table 1. Wrong. Variable 1 10 10 N. Samples 120 120 Variable 2 12 8 Result 1 78 1200 Variable 1 5 7 9 10 15 20 80 90 100 Result 1 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 75% 50% 100% 100% What’s wrong? 1) Not enough data to justify a table. 2) Variable 1 is not variable. If could be mentioned in the text or M&M, or even in the footnote of the table What? Be careful with 0’s and 100’s. Though the data is not the same in the columns, you could use a text: “The results were only different from 100% when variable 1 is equal 20 and 80, in this case the results were 75 and 50% respectively.” Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 EMS172L/2009 How to arrange data in a table Table MAY be orgonized horizontally or vertically MUST be organized for a vertical reading, never horizontal Result Result 1 Result 2 Result 3 Result 4 Regions Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 1 10 Negative Yellow 4000 Result 1 Region 2 20 Positive Green 2000 Result 2 10 Negative 20 Positive 50 Negative Region 3 50 Negative Pink 2000 Result 3 Yellow Green Pink Region 4 80 Not defined Yellow 1000 Result 4 4000 2000 2000 1000 Organization of the Table Words are aligned to the left or center Numbers are aligned to the right 80 Not defined Yellow Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Graphs: When to use them? Graphs call a lot of attention Anyhow, see if you really need them. Don’t use a graph to show something is constant. Use graphs when you want to give an idea of the evolution, and not precision of numbers. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Serie 1 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 0 10 35 45 Série 2 0 20 35 60 Serie 3 0 50 100 200 Graph preparation techniques Must be prepared such that the final impression will show all terms visible, including legends, titles, etc. H G F Absorbance (a.u.) A - SnO2 B - Ni 0.5 % C - Ni 2.0 % D - Ni 10.0 % E - Ni 30.0 % F - Ni 50.0 % G - Ni 80.0 % H - NiO H G F E D D C C B A B A H E D G C F E B A 3750 3600 3450 1800 1500 1200 -1 800 600 400 Wavenumber (cm ) Class Class Class Class Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Graph preparation techniques If two or more graphs can be combined, combinet them! H You may use the same graph with different axis But be careful to be sure one understands Do not set the axis range larger than the data Absorbance (a.u.) G F E D C B A 90 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 H G F E D C B A 80 70 SBET (m /g) 2 60 50 40 30 20 3750 3600 3450 1800 1500 1200 -1 Ni concentration (% mol) Wavenumber (cm ) Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Graph preparation techniques When ploting many curves, use simbols to differ them. Legends for this can be in the graph or in the figure legend. Use very distinct symbols to do that, avoid dot, dotline, dot-dot, dot-line-dot, etc... Use standard symbols: (○, ●, □, ▲, ▼, , , ■) Prefer black and white. Is this good? 0 -1 1/D - 1/D0 (µm ) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 K= ∞ K=90 K=60 K=47 K=20 K=10 K=0 Softwares to use... Excel Excel Origin Mathlab and similar Instrument’s software Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science -8 -9 0,00 -0,03 -0,06 -0,09 -0.11 (1/ρT - 1/ρ0) 1/ρ - 1/ρ0 (cm /g) 3 EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science DRX (nm) EMS172L/2009 EMS172L/2009 Is this good? Chose the right type of graph There are many different types of graphs, to different data and conclusions. In any of them, use letters with at least 8pt, lines with at least 0.5pt, symbols with 10-11pt (but always the same size in the graph). Avoid grade lines Avoid colors in a text In an oral presentaion, use them wisely Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Discussion Attempt to present the principles, relations, and generalization shown in the results Do not REPEAT the results, just discuss Show the points out of the curve Show how your results agree or not with the literature Discuss the theoretic implication Define your conclusions and meanings Summary you evidences Do not use factual relations: defend the truth you can Do with your limited data Conclusion Cite the main results linking to the discussion and concluded points Cite the limitations Cite future possible works Don’t rediscuss anything References Show here all the references you used in your work. This is linked by numbers, or author names in the text. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Where to get good information? Web of Science Engineering village Google Scholar Connect offcampus with VNP http://www.lib.ucdavis.edu/ul/research/ How do I evaluate the reports? (1) If the abstract mentions the basic principles that will be studied, the objectives, and how we did it, and briefly comment about the results. (1 point) (2) Completeness of introduction (considering science description that should be more that I've posted in the hand out) - (3 point) (3) Experimental procedure should describe the instruments and what is their use in the experiment. Enough information to enable reproducing is necessary. (2 point) (4) Results should be presented clearly (tables or plots) and commented in the text about the trends. Discussions should join the comments in the introduction with the observations, explaining in details why we see that particular behavior, what would be expected considering the theory, and why we did not achieve exactly what one could expect. (3 point) (5) The conclusion should summarize the objective of the experiment and what went right or wrong. (1 point) Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science EMS172L/2009 ...
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