EASC%20101%20Ch%202_Minerals%20and%20the%20Rock%20Cycle

EASC%20101%20Ch%202_Minerals%20and%20the%20Rock%20Cycle -...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 EASC 101 Chapter 2: MINERALS: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ROCKS Last Lecture Æ The “BIG” picture In order to understand the geological processes that occur on a large scale, must look at the building blocks of the Earth Æ minerals. MINERAL – a chemical element or compound that is: 1. Naturally occurring 2. Solid 3. Orderly internal Crystal Structure 4. Definite Chemical Composition (and… generally, formed by inorganic processes. Although this is not always a requirement) In geologic terms, a material must satisfy all of the first 4 above criteria in order to be classified as a mineral.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Minerals are composed of element(s)…. . Elements are composed of atoms…… In order to understand minerals, must have some basic understanding of atoms. ATOM : composed of 3 different particles 1. Proton – positively charged - reside in the nucleus (centre) of the atom - contributes mass to the atom 2. Neutron – electrically neutral (no charge) - reside in the nucleus - also contributes mass to the atom 3. Electron – negatively charged - orbits in a cloud around nucleus - contributes no mass to the atom For individual elements: Number of protons = number of electrons Number of protons = atomic number Number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic weight/mass
Background image of page 2
3 Isotopes: - atoms of the same element with differing numbers of neutrons (so atoms of the same element may have different atomic masses) - eg. C - some are unstable which results in radioactivity Periodic Table of Elements: - every chemical element has its own symbol - groups elements having similar chemical props. - atomic number (ie. # of protons) appears at the top right hand corner of the element box Chemical Reactions: - an interaction between the atoms of 2 or more chemical elements to form new chemical substances / compounds - involve interactions of electrons - egs.: 2 H + 1 O Æ H 2 O 1 Na + 1 Cl Æ NaCl
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 Gaining and Losing Electrons : - atoms have a stable electronic configuration when its outer electron shell is filled - atoms often lose or gain electrons to obtain stable configuration - chemical reactions of most elements only involve electrons in outermost shells - causes charge balance to become unequal Æ ions are atoms with a net electric charge positively (+) charged atoms = cations negatively (-) charged atoms = anions Types of Bonding : 1. Ionic bonding : when one atom gives up an electron(s) to another atom; dominant type in minerals -weak bonds 2. Covalent bonding : electrons are shared between 2 or more atoms so that each atom has a stable electronic configuration (completely filled outermost shell) part of the time. - very strong bonds 3. Metallic bonding : similar to covalent bonding, except innermost electrons are also shared.
Background image of page 4
5 Atomic Structure of Minerals: Compounds are formed by chemical bonding between atoms and ions into orderly, repeated atomic arrangements. - need to fill space efficiently and keep a charge balance
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/14/2010 for the course EARTH SCIE 100 taught by Professor John during the Spring '10 term at Simons Rock.

Page1 / 18

EASC%20101%20Ch%202_Minerals%20and%20the%20Rock%20Cycle -...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 6. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online