EASC%20101%20Ch%201_Intro

EASC%20101%20Ch%201_Intro - EASC 101 Chapter 1 An...

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1 EASC 101 Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Geology and Plate Tectonics GEOLOGY: the scientific study of the Earth ± Earth’s creation ± Earth’s evolution ± Earth’s inner workings, and their effect on the surface ± Geochemical balance between the lithosphere, biosphere and atmosphere ± Preservation of the planet PHYSICAL GEOLOGY: Study of the Earth’s materials, changes in the surface and interior features of the Earth, and the dynamic forces that cause these changes. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY: How the Earth evolved physically, chemically and biologically.
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2 THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM An actively changing interaction of the Earth’s interior and crust (ie. The solid Earth), hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere Energy derived from the Sun and radiocative decay, within the Earth A complete understanding of the processes which control the evolution of the Earth, requires a fundamental understanding of chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology and their sub-disciplines. WHY STUDY THE EARTH? Better Understand our Surroundings Search for New Deposits of Resources Protect the Environment Prevent / Limit damage due to Natural Hazards WHERE DO GEOLOGISTS WORK?
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3 Key Individuals in the History of Geological Sciences 1. Nicolaus Steno (1638-1687) Principles of: Superposition Original Horizontality Lateral Continuity of Bedded Rocks *2. James Hutton (1726-1797) ± Wrote first geology text (1785) “Theory of the Earth” in which the concept of “Uniformitarianism” was developed “The present is the key to the Past” ± Uniformitarianism conflicted with the view of Catastrophism CONCEPT OF GEOLOGIC TIME Relative Dating Geologic Time Scale Magnitude of Geologic Time
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4 THE ORIGIN OF OUR SYSTEM OF PLANETS Most widely accepted scientific explanation is the “Big Bang” theory. Universe began 12 – 13.5 billion years ago with a “cosmic” “explosion”. Prior to that…….
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2010 for the course EARTH SCIE 100 taught by Professor John during the Spring '10 term at Simons Rock.

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EASC%20101%20Ch%201_Intro - EASC 101 Chapter 1 An...

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