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Chapter 8 Review - Chapter 8 Review Skills for...

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Chapter 8 Review: Skills for Communicating Effectively Speech was first written down around 3200 BCE…ancient Sumerians Language is a socially shared system of representation that employs arbitrarily assigned symbols and rule-governed combinations of those symbols. Language is a socially shared system In order for a language to be a language, it must be share-able…that is, speakers must be able to speak the language to and about, and for and with others. A definition of a language, then, depends upon the idea that it be understood and shared by a social group. Meanings are derived from the interaction of words with images with people with ideas. These interactions formulate and convey meaning to the various users of language. Separate and different function parts work together…its socially shared Language is arbitrary A sign , argued Saussure, is a two faced thing, part of which faces inward and part of which faces outward. So a sign is a combination of two things…signifier and signified The signi fier is the word or picture or symbol used to represent the signi fied , which is an idea, an object, a color, a thing Ex…Da is the signifier…the actual human is the signified. Language is double arbitrary. On one hand, meaning is arbitrary assigned to the symbols(words) comprising language…Such arbitrarily assigned meaning is known as denotation of the word…the given, noted definition of a word…THE ACTUAL MEANING OF THE WORD On the other hand, words usually carry other arbitrary meanings. These carried meanings are known as connotation of a word, various meanings and ideas that are associated with the word…WHAT THE WORD REPRESENTS The signifier is caused by the signified. Language is Symbolic Signs are symbols…and symbols comprise language….they are the arbitrary elements of meaning, and they are the items that we share socially. There are three different kinds of symbols…conventional, indexical, iconic . Conventional symbol the meanings of the word have many definitions These are arbitrary vehicles of meaning; they carry and convey the denotations of words. Small sets of sounds and symbols can be used to create an infinite array of meanings Bad thing is, to learn the language, you would have to know every combination
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Chapter 8 Review: Skills for Communicating Effectively Iconic symbols ... pictures represent the ideas These look or (sound) like their signified. Many ancient written languages began as iconic collections…Egyptian hieroglyphics was a language based on iconic relationship between signifiers and signified in that the pictures represented the things they depicted. The poetic device, onomatopoeia, uses iconic symbols to convey meaning.
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