Unformatted text preview: Three Parts of a Speech Three
Tell ‘em what you’re going to tell ‘em (The Introduction) * Tell ‘em (The Body) * Tell ‘em what you’ve told ‘em (The Conclusion) Steps in Preparing Your Speech Steps
1. 2. 1. 2. Select and narrow your topic. Brainstorm! Determine your purpose. a. General: the broad purpose of the a. speech, typically to inform, persuade or entertain entertain b. Specific: Narrowing your focus to what b. you can accomplish in your presentation (sets up the central idea) (sets Develop your central idea. Generate, prepare and organize your main Generate, strategic organization strategic Organizing the Body Organizing Main Ideas Main “the major points developed in the body of the a speech” speech” Form the skeleton of you speech Select, arrange & phrase your main points strategically points Finding Main Ideas Finding Mindmapping: generates ideas by Mindmapping: determining relationships between them. determining Sorting: uses note cards so that you may Sorting: re-stack and re-group ideas together. re-stack Strategic Arrangement of Main Points of Chronological Order (time or sequence) Topical Order (divide the topic into logical Topical parts) parts) Spatial Order (location or position of Spatial ideas) ideas) Causal Order (cause-effect relationship) Problem-Solution Order Problem-Solution Supporting Materials Supporting Main points are assertions—you need to Main develop these assertions with research, or develop supporting materials: the materials used the to support a speaker’s ideas. to Examples Statistics Testimony Testimony Supporting materials emerge as “sub- points” and “sub-sub-points” Organizing Supporting Material Organizing Primacy or Recency Specificity Specificity Complexity Soft to Hard Evidence Finding Flow Finding Connectives: words or phrases that connect Connectives: your ideas together and indicate how they are related to each other. (previews, summaries, transitions and signposts) summaries, Strengthen organization in the body of the Strengthen speech speech Help make the speech unified & coherent Connectives: Signposts Connectives: Signposts: a verbal or nonverbal signal that the Signposts: speaker is moving to another topic (previews, summaries and transitions) summaries “The first/second/third reason . . .” Raise questions to move from point to point. Emphasize important points with a phrase, “The key Emphasize concept is,” or “It is important to remember . . .” concept Connectives: Previews Connectives:
Initial Preview- First statement of the main ideas; occurs in the introduction near the central idea central Internal Preview- Let the audience know Let what the speaker will say next; often useful to replace transition between introduction and first main point of speech introduction Connectives: Summaries Connectives:
Internal Summaries- Remind listeners of what they have just heard; Especially useful when a speaker finishes a complex or important point; Clarify and reinforce the speaker’s ideas the Final Summary- a recap of ALL of the main points; occurs in the conclusion with the restating of the central idea restating Connectives: Transitions Connectives:
Transitions- a word, phrase or nonverbal cue that indicates movement from one idea to the next indicates Verbal Transitions- a word or phrase that indicates the relationship between the two ideas. (Besides that; Now we will turn; In addition to…) Now Nonverbal Transitions- Facial expression, vocal cue, or physical movement that indicates a speaker is moving from one idea to the next moving Beginning & Ending the Speech the Ethos is important in both the introduction and conclusion: the Introductions: Gets the speaker Gets started on the right foot foot Creates a favorable Creates first impression first Boosts speaker’s Boosts self-confidence self-confidenc Conclusions: Ends the speech on Ends a strong note strong Last chance to Last emphasize main points points Creates favorable Creates final impression final Five Purposes of an Introduction Five Attention-Getter Relate to Audience Relate Establish Credibility/Ethos State Central Idea/Introduce the topic Preview Main Points Ways to Gain an Audience’s Attention
(Osborne & Osborne) (Osborne Use a personal story Illustrations or anecdotes Startling Facts or Startling Statistics Statistics Quotations Ask a rhetorical question Use an audio or visual aid Use Use humor (respectfully) Reference historical or Reference recent events (or the occasion) occasion) Reference preceding Reference speeches speeches Four Purposes of a Conclusion Four Signal that the speech is coming to an end (Review your main points) Restate the central idea (Refer back to the introduction) Motivate the audience to respond Provide closure Provide (End with impact) (End How to End with Impact How
(Osborne) Echo the introduction Make a dramatic statement Use a quotation Use a metaphor or figurative analogy Ask a rhetorical question Do not be longwinded in the conclusion End with a BANG!, not a whimper Outlining Outlining Preparation Outline Preparation “A detailed, full-sentence outline detailed, full-sentence developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, sub-points, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of the speech.” speech.” Formatting the Outline Formatting Create a standard outline format: Create standard “conventional use of numbered and lettered headings and subheadings to indicate the relationships among parts of a speech speech Think of a visual framework: “the pattern Think visual “the of symbolization and identification in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker’s ideas.” relationships Use consistent symbols in pairs Use consistent symbols in pairs
I. A. B. 1. 2. a. b. II. The Bibliography The Alphabetical order Do not label or number the articles Follow APA, MLA, etc All sources cited or consulted, as well as All visual aids, should be included visual If you fail to turn in the bibliography, If the speech grade is zero. the The Delivery Outline The
aka: “Speaking Outline” A brief outline using key words only Used to jog the speaker’s memory and to Used keep him or her organized Gives delivery cues Highlight supportive materials or signposts Highlight FIVE note cards Extemporaneous Speaking Extemporaneous
“a carefully prepared and rehearsed carefully speech that is presented from a brief set of notes” set ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/15/2010 for the course CMS 306M taught by Professor Gomez during the Spring '06 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '06