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Unformatted text preview: LING/AIS 210 Spring 2008 International Phonetic Alphabet supplement Page 1 of 4
This is intended to be used as a reference for students as we use the International Phonetic Alphabet in this class. Please note that there are many variations of IPA that may be used by different authors and organizations, and we will see many different `dialects' of the IPA this term. This handout uses on common `dialect' of IPA, which I hope will be useful. Table 1: Commonly used consonants (where two consonants appear in the same cell, the leftmost is voiceless, the rightmost is voiced). Examples of English words containing these sounds (if they are found in English) can be found in Table 3 below. bilabial labiovelar labiodental interdental alveolar alveopalatal palatal velar glottal Stop pb td c j (or t d) fv s z n r l w j (or y) k (or ') h Affricate Fricative Nasal m Liquid (retroflex) Liquid (lateral) Glide s z (or ) x (or n) Table 2: Commonly used vowels (note that all of the back vowels except [a] are also round, and none of the other vowels on this chart are round). The vowels [i, e, u, o] are tense, while the other non-low vowels are lax. The low vowels may be either tense or lax, depending upon the situation. Examples of American English words containing these sounds (if they are found in English) can be found in Table 4 below. Front Central Back High i u Mid Low e a o American English Diphthongs: [aj] as in `buy'; [oj] as in `boy', [ow] as in `bow' (the verb) Table 3: IPA symbols for consonants of English, with examples of English words. IPA b m p w f v Sample Word `bill' `mill' `spill' `witch' `foe' `vole' `though' IPAword place [bl] [ml] [spl] [wc] [fo] [vol] [o] Bilabial Bilabial Bilabial Labiovelar Labiodental Labiodental Interdental manner Stop Stop Stop Glide Fricative Fricative Fricative voice voiced voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiced nasal other oral nasal oral oral oral oral oral LING/AIS 210 Spring 2008 International Phonetic Alphabet supplement Page 2 of 4 IPA d l n r s t z c j s z j k h Sample Word `thought' `dog' `log' `nog' `rug' `soggy' `stop' `zigzag' `chop' `judge' IPAword place [at] [da] [la] [na] [r] [sai] [stap] [zz] [cap] [jj] [sp] [raz] [jl] [s] [et] [sket] [o] [he] Interdental Alveolar Alveolar Alveolar Alveolar Alveolar Alveolar Alveolar Alveopalatal manner Fricative Stop Lateral Stop Retroflex Fricative Stop Fricative Affricate voice voiceless voiced voiced voiced voiced voiceless voiceless voiced voiceless voiced nasal other oral oral oral nasal oral oral oral oral oral Also written [t] oral Also written [d] oral Also written oral Also written oral Also written [y] nasal oral oral oral Also written [`] oral Alveopalatal Affricate `ship' `garage' `yell' `sing' `gate' `skate' `uh-oh' `hay' Palatal Palatal Palatal Velar Velar Velar Glottal Glottal Fricative Fricative Glide Stop Stop Stop Stop Fricative voiceless voiced voiced voiced voiced voiceless voiceless voiceless Table 4: IPA symbols for vowels and diphthongs of American English, with examples of English words. Symbol Sample IPAword Height Frontness Tense/Lax Round/Unround Word High Back Lax Round `book' [bk] `boot' High Back Tense Round u [but] High Front Lax Unround `bit' [bt] `beat' High Front Tense Unround i [bit] Mid Back Lax Round `caught' [kt] `coat' Mid Back Tense Round o [kot] Mid Front Lax Unround `bet' [bt] LING/AIS 210 Spring 2008 International Phonetic Alphabet supplement Symbol Sample Word `bait' e `but' `bunches' `cot' a `cat' `buy' aj oj ow `boy' `bow' IPAword Height [bet] [bt] [bncz] [kat] [kt] [baj] [boj] [bow] Frontness Tense/Lax Page 3 of 4 Round/Unround Mid Front Tense Unround 1 Mid Central Lax Unround 2 Mid Central Lax Unround 3 Low Back ? Unround Low Front ? Unround This is a diphthong refer to the phonetic description of each of its parts This is a diphthong refer to the phonetic description of each of its parts This is a diphthong refer to the phonetic description of each of its parts Table 5: Important Diacritics Symbol Example Name Aspiration [tap] `top' (English) ' Glottalization [bk'ah] `his/her fat' (W. Apache) w Labialization [sak] `toadfish' (Seri) j Palatalization [brat] `to take' (Russian) [mnk] `mink' Nasalization (English)
. Notes A `secondary articulation' of consonants a puff of air follows the pronunciation of a consonant. A `secondary articulation' of consonants a glottal stop immediately follows the pronunciation of a consonant. A `secondary articulation' of consonants lip rounding follows or co-occurs with the articulation of the consonant sound. A `secondary articulation' of consonants the palatal glide accompanies the consonant A `secondary articulation' of vowels the velum is dropped to allow airflow through the nasal cavity as well as the oral cavity. Nasalization may also be marked with a tilde. A consonant is articulated with the tip of the tongue curled upwards, so that the bottom of the tongue tip forms the closure. A property of vowels in `tone languages' the accent indicates a high pitch on the vowel. [ta] `foot' (Tohono O'odham) [dbe] `sheep' (Navajo) Retroflexion High tone This symbol is used for the mid, central, lax, unround vowel when that vowel is in a stressed syllable. T2 This symbol is used for the mid, central, lax, unround vowel when that vowel is in an unstressed syllable. 3 Low vowels may be analyzed as either tense or lax, depending on the language and their phonetic environment. 1 LING/AIS 210 Spring 2008 International Phonetic Alphabet supplement Page 4 of 4 Symbol Example [ba:ban] `coyotes' (Tohono O'odham) Name Length Notes A property of vowels in languages where duration is phonemic indicates that the preceding vowel is pronounced with longer duration than a `short' vowel. This can also be written as two adjacent identical vowels i.e. [ba:ban] can also be written [baaban]. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course LING 210 taught by Professor Fountain during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.
- Spring '08