326Madapimm - Specific Adaptive Immunity Specific CELLULAR...

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Specific Adaptive Immunity Specific CELLULAR and HUMORAL (Ab) responses to specific Ags (Cell and Ab “SPECIFICITY”). Responses to virtually ALL Ag is achieved by cell and Ab “DIVERSITY” Cytokines Chemical signals produced by cells are required for immunoregulation- there is some “overlap” in cytokine nomenclature (e.g IL-1 is a monokine and also an interleukin) Monokines are made by M Φ ’s (e.g tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1 (endogenous pyrogen) Lymphokines are made by T cells Interleukins (IL) are cytokines that have action on white cells, mainly lymphocytes Hematopoietins- involved with blood cell formation (M Φ ’s, PMNs, lymphocytes) can be made by a number of different cells. Examples: colony stimulating factors (CSF); erythropoietin (Epo)) Chemokines have a central role as mediators in acute and chronic inflammation; are chemotactic – attract phagocytes and lymphocytes Interferons (IFNs) are produced by many host cells and have many functions 1. IFNs are species specific, but virus nonspecific 2. IFN γ - made by helper T cells, T H 1. Involved with maturation of cytotoxic T cells and M Φ activation. 3. IFN α,β- made by virally infected cells- induction of antiviral state- killing virally infected cells and preventing adjacent cells from becoming infected.
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Interleukins (IL) have many effects on leukocytes-the following Interleukins are mediators of mature cell activation, growth (division), and differentiation IL-1 made by APC (mainly M Φ ’s)- inflammatory mediator “endogenous pyrogen”-fever inducer- has many additional effects including B and T cell activation, and increasing vascular permeability IL-2 made by T cells is main T cell growth factor- triggers multiplication of T H and T C cells; can also activate natural killer (NK) cells, and T C to become a cytotoxic T lymphocyte CTL IL-4, IL-5, IL-10: stimulate B cell growth and differentiation IL-15 can help activate T C to become (CTL) Mitogen is NOT necessarily a cytokine, but it stimulates cell division (mitosis) of T and B cells; can be used to enhance lymphocyte multiplication after receiving the cytokine stimulation to “divide” Cytokines that are mediators of immature or precursor cell division and differentiation IL-3 and IL-7 regulate stem cell (precursors cells in the immune system) proliferation CSFs (hematopoietins)- stimulate production of specific cell lines (M Φ ’s, PMNs, lymphocytes) from the stem cells
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Ag presenting cells (APC)- present processed Ag to T cells to elicit specific cellular immunity Much of the interaction between APC and T cells takes place in the secondary lymphoid organs: spleen, lymph nodes, MALT All nucleated cells in the host have Major Histocompatibility Complex marker I (MHC I) which is the major determinant of “SELF” When virally infected (or tumor) cell presents processed viral (endogenous) Ag on MHC I to the
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This note was uploaded on 05/15/2010 for the course BIO 326M taught by Professor Field during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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326Madapimm - Specific Adaptive Immunity Specific CELLULAR...

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