Disc 3 - Discussion 3 1 What are Swab Intubation catheter...

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Discussion 3 1. What are Swab, Intubation, catheter and needle aspiration.  2. Define CSF, sputum, saliva 3. Describe the gram test.  4. Explain in detail PCR method and how is it used for bacterial identification 5. Explain-ELISA or EIA and Direct and Indirect fluorescence method 6. Describe the different physical and chemical barriers for the host defense system to avoid bacterial  infection 7. What is western blotting? 8. Describe the 3 different complement pathways 9. Give one example of a bridging event that unites two arms of host defense. 10. What is phagocytosis and opsonization?   11. What are acute and convalescent sera? 12. What is lyzozyme?  13. What are IFNs, cytokines?
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Quality of specimen affects results in the clinical lab Aseptic: specific procedures used to prevent unwanted microorganisms from contaminating the clinical specimen SWAB: 1.Most common procedure used to collect specimens from the anterior nares/throat. 2.Sterile swab 3.Drawbacks: risk of contamination & limited volume capacity (<0.1ml) NEEDLE ASPIRATION:
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1.Used to collect specimens aseptically –ex: anaerobic bacteria from CSF, blood, pus etc. 2. To prevent blood from clotting and entrapping microorganisms, various anti-coagulants are included INTUBATION: 1.Insertion of a tube into a body canal or hollow organ 2.Ex: collect specimen from stomach-long sterile tube is attached to a syringe and the tube is passed through a nostril-specimens are then withdrawn periodically into the sterile syringe CATHETER: 1.Tubular instrument used for withdrawing or introducing fluids from or into a body cavity 2.Ex. Urine specimens may be collected with catheters to detect urinary tract infections caused by bacteria, from newborns and neonates who cannot give a voluntary urine specimen SPUTUM: common specimen collected in suspected cases of lower respiratory tract infections. What is it? It is the mucous secretion expectorated from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea through the mouth. SPUTUM is collected
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using sputum cups: this specially designed cup allows the patient to expectorate a clinical specimen directly into the cup-the cup can be opened from the bottom to reduce the chance of contamination from extraneous pathogens. This is in contrast to… SALIVA. SALIVA: secretion of the salivary glands that contain oral microflora. CSF=cerebrospinal fluid: Transported within 15 minutes
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Disc 3 - Discussion 3 1 What are Swab Intubation catheter...

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