OCEANS FINAL - Plate Tectonics two rocks characterize...

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Plate Tectonics two rocks characterize Earth’s crust o granite: land o basalt: ocean granite is ingeneous (formed of molten rock) basalt/oceanic crust is much denser oceanic crust is thin, high density basalt Continental crust is thick, low density granite -Isotasy Experiment in a bucket of water, there is equal pressure on the bottom of the bucket. If you put a block of wood in the bucket, there will be a temporary increase in pressure under the block. Therefore, water quickly moves out from under the block. It increases water depth and causes part of the block to float above the water in order to displace the right amount of water to maintain equal pressure. More mass with equal density will rise higher above the water and its base will extend deeper o Mountains are higher because they have deeper crustal roots -Continental Drift “jigsaw” idea o Africa and South America fit together o Pangaea broke apart along geologic faults Water Heat- the property that one measures, that results from the physical vibrations of atoms and molecules -characteristics of water High melting and boiling point Heat capacity: quantity of heat required to raise one gram of water 1 degree Celsius. o Water has a high heat capacity Universal solvent- things dissolve easily in water Hydrogen bonds attached to oxygen at 105 degrees by a covalent bond Hydrogen bond connect water to other molecules o Can make up to 4 hydrogen bonds - Solutes of Seawater Water contains salts, metals, nutrients, gases, and organic compounds Concentration of solute measured in parts per thousand o Ex. 1,000 g of seawater contains x amount of salts o Average about 35 ppt Gas in seawater o Cold, fresher water can hold more gas than salty, warm water
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o Gas gets into water through waves and turbulence (creating bubbles), surface contact with air, and organisms (photosynthesis and respiration) o N, O, CO2, and H Dissolved levels of O and CO2 affected by photosynthesis and respiration Oxygen in the Ocean o Low and middle latitudes: warm surface layer with higher oxygen is separated from deep water at about 150-1500 meters below the surface o O2 minimum layer formed at the lowest level that organisms thrive and feed off of dead organisms, producing high CO2 levels combined with poor water mixing—about 150-1500 m o Most O2 comes from gas diffusion and photosynthesis o Most O2 at the surface o O2 gets to deep oceans from the poles Cold, dense oxygen rich water sinks below the warmer water as it moves away from the poles and provides enough oxygen for deep sea organisms Carbon Dioxide in the ocean o Animals release CO2 as they break down food o CO2 regulates ocean’s acidity o pH= degree to which water provides an acceptable habitat is determined by the concentration of dissolved hydrogen atoms in the water neutral- pure water, equal parts OH- and H+, 7 pH lower numbers of pH is more acidic, meaning more hydrogen
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2010 for the course OCEAN 100 taught by Professor Dorman during the Fall '10 term at San Diego State.

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OCEANS FINAL - Plate Tectonics two rocks characterize...

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