Lecture22outline-1

Lecture22outline-1 - I. Review The ability of carbohydrates...

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I. Review • The ability of carbohydrates to form numerous hydrogen bonds makes them water soluble • Biological molecules bind to each other when they have both shape complementarity and an appropriate network of hydrogen bonds • Complex carbohydrates are present on cell surfaces, and can be quite distinct in certain cases, such as in cancer cells • Synthetic versions of these carbohydrates can be used to develop vaccines that cause the immune system to attack cancer cells, providing a potentially very selective and benign form of cancer therapy • Carboxylic acids have pKa values of <5 because their conjugate bases can delocalize negative charge over two electronegative oxygen atoms • Several carboxylic acids are known by their common names to a much greater extent than by their systematic names • The acidity of carboxylic acids is influenced by the substituents on the carbon that is bonded to the carbonyl group, with electron withdrawing groups enhancing acidity through destabilizing the positive charge on the carbonyl
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Lecture22outline-1 - I. Review The ability of carbohydrates...

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